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Apologia Chemistry Module 8
Terms in this set (33)
The electrons that exist farthest from an atom's nucleus. They are generally the electrons with the highest energy level number.
The elements in 8A.
Their s and p orbitals in their highest energy level are full.
Most atoms strive to attain eight valence electrons. Hydrogen tries to get two.
For atoms in groups 1A-8A, the number of valence electrons equals ...
... the number of the column in which the atom is located
An atom that has gained or lost electrons and thus has become electrically charged
In ionic compounds, nonmetals try to gain electrons so that their Lewis structure has _____ dots around it.
(except for H)
In ionic compounds, metals try to lose electrons until their Lewis structure has _____ dots around it.
Positive ions have the _________ name as the atom from which they came.
Negative ions have an ________ suffix added to the name of the atom from which they came.
lose an electron
lose 2 electrons
all except boron become 3+
C and Si are non metals and become 4-
All others are special
nonmetals become 3-
don't worry about metals
nonmetals become 2-
If the charges have the same numerical value, the subscript for each ion is .....
1, and can be ignored
If the charges have different numerical values .....
drop the + and - signs, switch the numbers and use them as subscripts
groups 1B - 8B
The process by which an atom turns into an ion by gaining or losing electrons
The amount of energy needed in order to take an electron away from an atom.
In general, the ionization potential of atoms __________ from left to right and ________ from top to bottom of the period chart.
A characteristic of atoms that varies regularly across the periodic chart
A measure of how strongly an atom attracts extra electrons to itself.
In general, electronegativity _______ from left to right and _______ from top to bottom on the periodic chart.
In general, atomic radius _______ from left to right and _______ from top to bottom of the periodic chart.
A shared pair of valence electrons that holds atoms together in covalent compounds
Atoms in covalent compounds _______ electrons in order to form molecules.
Atoms in ionic compounds ___________ electrons to form ions.
give or take
A bond made of two shared electron pairs
A bond made of three shared electron pairs
In the periodic table, atoms that strongly hold their electrons, attract other electrons, and have a smaller radius are in the ...
upper right corner
In the periodic table, atoms that have a weak hold on their electrons, don't attract other electrons, and have a larger radius are in the ...
lower left corner