46 terms

ETHICS 1125 FINAL EXAM

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Abusive/Intimidating Behavior
Refers to many things - physical threats, false accusations, being annoying, profanity, insults yelling, harshness, ignoring someone, and unreasonableness - and their meaning differs from person to person
Age Discrimination in Employment Act
Specifically outlaws hiring practices that discriminate against people who are 40 years of age or older, as well as those that require employees to retire before age 70
Behavior Economics
Assumes that humans may not act rationally because of genetics, learned behavior, and rules of thumb.
Bribery
The offering of something of value in order to gain an illicit advantage
Bullying
Associated with a hostile workplace where someone considered a target is threatened, harassed, belittled, or verbally abused.
Business Ethics
Comprises the principles, values, and standards that guide behavior in the world of business
Civil Law
Defines the rights and duties of individuals and organizations, including businesses
Codes of Conduct
Formal statements that describe what an organization expects of its employees in terms of ethical behavior.
Codes of Ethics
The most comprehensive and consist of general statements, sometimes altruistic or inspirational, that serve as principles ans as the basis for rules of conduct. It generally specifies methods for reporting violations, disciplinary action of violations, and a structure of due process.
Coercive Leader
Demands instantaneous obedience and focuses on punishing wrong behavior, achievement, initiative, and self-control.
Compliance
When developing an ethical culture, there has to be a ___ element because every organization has employees that will try to take advantage if their is an opportunity for misconduct.
Corporate Citizenship
Is a term used to express how a firm meets its stakeholder expectations of its economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities.
Corporate culture
Can be defined as a set of values, norms, and artifacts including ways of solving problems shared by members of an organization
Criminal Law
Not only prohibitings specific actions in business such as fraud, theft, or securities trading violations, but also imposes fines or imprisonment as punishment for breaking the law.
Customers
Primary stakeholder group and should be included in the ethics auditing process because their loyalty determines ans organization's success
Ethical Issue
A problem situation, or opportunity requiring an individual group, or organziation to choose among several actions that must be evaluated as right or wrong, ethical or unethical. Issues related to fairness and honesty may arise because business is sometimes regarded as a game governed by its own rules rather than those of society.
Ethics
Defined as behavior or decisions made within a group's values.
Ethics Audit
An ethics audit is a tool that companies can employ to identify and measure their ethical commitment to stakeholders
Ethics Leadership
The ability or authoirty to guide and direct others toward a goal. The best way for a manager to provide good __is for the manager to set a good example. As one of the seven habits of strong ethical leaders, the passion to do right is the glue that holds ethical concepts together. This trait can be developed early in life or developed over time through experience
Executive Compensation
One policy to address the issue of executive pay was implemented by J. P. Morgan , it stated that managers should earn no more than rwenty times the pay of other employees. Top managers tend to focus on financial performance because their job and personal identity are often conected to quarterly returns.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Regulaets tobacco, dietary supplements, vaccines, veterinary drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, products that give off radiation, and biological products.
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
Outlawed bribery of officials in other countries
Fraud
Defined as any purposeful communication that deceives, manipulates, or conceal facts in order to create a false impression.
Global Business
Involves transactions across national boundaries. It is a practice that brings together people who have different cultures, values, laws, and ethical standards.
Groupthink
Occurs when one or more group members feels pressured to conform to the group's decision even if they personally disagree.
Hotlines
Serve as a central contact point where critical comments, dilemmas, and advice can be assigned to the person most appropriate for handling a specific case.
Human Rights
Has been codified in a United Nations document and is defined as an inherent dignity with equal and inalienable rights as the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world.
Justice
Deals with issue of what individuals feel they are due based on their rights and performance in the workplace, and therefore is more likely to be based on deontological moral philosophies than on teleological or utilitarian ones.
Living Wage
The minimum wage that a worker requires to meet basic needs
Misconduct
The federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organizations require federal judges to increase fines for organizations that continually tolerate misconduct. The Ethics Resource Center has identified misuse of company resources as the leading form of observed misconduct in organizations. Organizational misconduct can contribute to diminished employee trust and increased employee turnover. One of the main reasons employees do not report observed misconduct is fear of retaliations
Moral Philosophy
Refers to the principles or rules that people use to decide what is right or wrong
Motivation
Defined as a force within the individual that focuses her or his behavior on achieving a goal.
Organizational Politics
Gossip, manipulation, playing favorites, and taking credit for another's work are examples
Pollution
One of the biggest factors in land _____ is the dumping of waste into landfills. American consumers are by far the world's biggest wasters.
Pollution Prevention Act
Focuses on reducing pollution through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use.
Principles
Are specific and pervasive boundaries for behavior that are universal and absolute.
Privacy
The growth of the Internet and differing security laws between countries has led to an increase in concern for _______
Reward Power
Refers to the ability to influence the behavior of others by offering them something desirable
Sarbanes-Oxley Act
CEOs and CFOs may be criminally prosecuted if they knowingly certify misleading financial statements.
Social Responsibility
An organization's obligation to maximize its positive effects and minimize its negative effects on stakeholders.
Stakeholders
In a business context, customers, investors and shareholders, employees, suppliers, government agencies, communities, and many others who have a "stake" or claim in some aspect of a company's products, operations, markets, industry, and outcomes are known as stakeholders.
Teams
Brings together the functional expertise of employees from several different areas of the organization on a single project.
Toxic Substances Control Act
Congress passed ______ to empower the EPA with the ability to track the 75000 industrial chemicals currently produced or imported into the United States
Values
Enduring beliefs and ideals that are socially enforced. Several desirable or ethical values for business today are teamwork, trust, and integrity.
Virtue
Th elements of ______ which are important to business transactions have been defined as trust, self-control, empathy, fairness, and truthfulness.
Windpowe
Holds great promise for the United States because of the Great Plains, and experts believe _______ could meet as much as 20 percent of the nation's energy needs.