Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
AP biology unit two review
Terms in this set (32)
A cell without a nucleus
What components do prokaryotic cells have in common?
small cells with a simple structure.
They all have a cell membrane, ribosomes, a cell wall.
- Prokaryotic DNA can be found in a coiled loop floating in the cytoplasm in a region called the nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like).
What type of organisms are prokaryotic cells?
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope
What components do eukaryotic cells have in common?
larger and more complex than prokaryotic.
They all have a cell membrane, ribosomes, and DNA as prokaryotes do. However, the DNA of a eukaryotic cell does not float freely in the cytoplasm, instead it is found in the nucleus.
What types of organisms are eukaryotic?
animals, plants, fungi, protists
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote cells
-Eukaryote cells-Membrane bound organelles, nucleus
-Prokaryote cells-Simple cells, no nucleus; example-bacteria
How do DNA, cell walls/membranes, and ribosomes differ in prokaryote and eukaryotes?
prokaryotes - found floating as a single loop in the cytoplasm
eukaryotes - found in the nucleus
prokaryotic - the cell wall surrounds the cell membrane
eukaryotic - the cell wall surrounds the cell membrane. Also contains membrane bound organelles.
prokaryotes - (smaller) ribosomes float freely in the cytoplasm
eukaryotic - (larger) ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm but also attached to ER and nuclear membrane.
What is the function of the nucleus?
Control/management center of the cell
What is the function of the nucleolus?
The nucleolus of a cell is part of the production of ribosomes and contains the cell's RNA, one of the vital building blocks that tells the cell what it is.
what is the function of the smooth ER?
lipid synthesis and break down toxins. Is not covered by ribosomes.
What is the function of the rough ER?
protein synthesis. Prominent in large amounts of protein. Covered with ribosomes.
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
sorts and modifies proteins that have arrived from the rough ER. (UPS of the cell)
What is the function of the mitochondria?
Powerhouse of the cell and cellular respiration.
What is the function of the chloroplasts?
photosynthesis. Has a higher surface area which causes more reaction.
What is the function of the vacuoles?
very large in plant cells. Used for temporary storage of waste, water, and nutrients.
What is the function of lysosomes?
-break down materials and waste using enzymes
-host defense (destruction of bacteria by white blood cells)
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
helps a cell keep its shape
What is the function of the centrioles?
Plasma (cell) membrane
has a phospholipid bilayer
regulates what enters and leaves the cell
How do you calculate the surface area of an object?
(length x width x number of sides)
How do you calculate the volume of an object?
(length x width x height)
What happens to the cell's surface area to volume ratio as it gets bigger?
As a cell grows in size, the surface area gets bigger, but the volume gets bigger faster. Thinking about this as a ratio (division), the volume is the denominator and the surface area is the numerator. If the volume is getting very big, then the ratio itself will be getting very small since it is dividing by a larger number.
Calculate surface area to volume ratio
This ratio refers to the amount of surface an object has relative to its size.
area= length X width X 6
volume=length X width X height
SA:V (divide surface area by the volume)
Is a smaller or larger surface area to volume ratio more efficient to a cell?
The cell needs a large surface area but a smaller volume to be able to keep enough nutrients. The lower the ratio, the lower the waste and more nutrients.
Compare and contrast diffusion and facilitated diffusion.
Simple diffusion - (lipids) diffusion of nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules. It transports directly through the phospholipid bilayer.
Facilitated diffusion - diffusion of polar, hydrophilic molecules. It transports through protein channels.
both have high to low concentration gradient. (don't need energy to transport).
What is active transport? List some examples
requires energy, (low to high concentration)(ATP)
EX. endocytosis (moving molecules in)
EX. exocytosis (moving molecules out)
EX. phagocytosis ( fuse with lysosome for digestion (eating)
EX. pinocytosis (non-specific process takes in fluid
EX. receptor-mediated endocytosis (triggered by molecular signal (takes in specific molecules)
What is passive transport?
The movement of materials across the cell membrane without using cellular energy
EX. simple diffusion
EX. facilitated diffusion (through protein channels)
what is isotonic and what happens to animals and plants in this solution concentration.
Equal solute, equal water (mild salt)
animals - blood cells in blood plasma (no problem)
Plants - no change. cells will not shrink or swell
what is hypertonic and what happens to animals and plants in this solution concentration.
more solute, less water (salty water)
animals - takes in less water so the cells shrink
plants - wilt
what is hypotonic and what happens to animals and plants in this solution concentration.
less solute, more water (fresh water)
animals - gains too much water, cells swell, and can burst, then die
plants - normal
define endosymbiotic theory. We need evidence of this theory.
Endosymbiont Theory proposed that the main organelles of the eukaryotic cell were actually primitive prokaryotic cells that had been engulfed by a different, bigger prokaryotic cell.
- EVIDENCE - mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own ribosomes
- EVIDENCE - both mitochondria and chloroplasts have double phospholipid bilayers. This appears to have arisen by mitochondria and chloroplasts entering eukaryotic cells via endocytosis.
Sets with similar terms
Cell Exam Review
Cell Structure and Function/Cellular Transport (mi…
GCSE biology foundation
Sets found in the same folder
AP Biology 3.1-3.2 Vocab
AP Biology Unit 1 Exam Study Guide
Ap bio vocab quiz
Other sets by this creator
Unit 1.5 espanól
UNIT UNO ESPANÓL EL VOCABULARIO
Recommended textbook solutions
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Rinehart, Winston and Holt
Biology Study Workbook A
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine