Biology Chapter 8
Terms in this set (44)
What result of Fredrick Griffiths experiments led him to believe in a transforming princable?
Mice injected with a dead S and a live R bacteria died
And important factor in Oswald Avery's ability to identify the transforming principle as DNA was the fact that proteins
Contain very little phosphorus
Chemical analysis of Avery's extractions showed that the ratio of nitrogen phosphorus was consistent with that of
Which of the following DNA sequences is complementary to the base sequence ACCGTAT?
Combining the work of other scientists with their own research, Watson and Crick discovered that two strands of DNA join together to form a
What holds base pairs together?
The process that makes an exact copy of the cells DNA is called
Which event occurs directly after DNA molecule is unzipped?
Free floating nucleotides pair up with exposed bases
The process of making new DNA molecules is semiconservative. This means that every new DNA molecule is composed of
One original and one new strand of DNA
The central dogma of molecular biology states that information flows in one direction from
DNA to RNA to proteins
The main function of tRNA is to
Bring amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes
Which event occurs directly after RNA polymerase recognizes the transcription start site of a gene
The DNA strand begins to unwind, separating the two strands
A primary difference between transcription and replication is that transcription
Happens repeatedly throughout a single cell cycle
What is the term for a three nucleotide sequence that counts for amino acid
What phrase best describes translation?
Converts mRNA into a polypeptide
What is the site of translation?
The bacterial lac opera is switched on when
Lactose binds to the lac repressor
And a eukaryotic cell, where does mRNA processing take place?
What is the main function of a promoter?
Tells RNA polymerase where to start
Cystic fibrosis is an example of a genetic disease caused by the deletion of a nucleotide. What is the term for this type of mutation?
Which type of mutation has no effect on phenotype?
Genes influence traits for directing cells to make specific
In alternative form of a gene that may occur at a specific locus is an
Within a cell, proteins are made in the
Carbon-based molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids play a roll in the living things because of their
Unique bonding ability
An organisms phenotype is determined by that organisms
Expression of its genotype
What did Hershey and Chase know about bacteriophages that led them to use these viruses and their DNA experiments?
Bacteriophages are made up a protein coat surrounding DNA
Which scientist conducted tests on extracts made of bacteria to show that the genetic material in bacteria is DNA?
Which scientist figured out the three-dimensional structure of DNA by using a model of metal and wood?
Watson and Crick
In humans, where does DNA replication take place?
During the replication, the function of the enzyme DNA polymerase is to
Bind nucleotides together
During transcription, what does messenger RNA do?
It delivers DNA's instructions for making proteins
What is a factor that influences gene expression?
The genetic make up of the zygote
What is the term for the sections of messenger RNA that are spliced together during processing?
Which scientist used chemical analysis to show the genetic material in bacteria is DNA?
How did Hershey and Chase use of radiolabeled bacteriophages to study material validate Avery's research?
It demonstrated conclusively that the genetic material is not protein
The DNA double helix model used today is the product of research done by scientists
Watson and Crick
Suppose you can read the sequence of bases on only one strand of the double helix. What would you use to figure out this on the other strand?
Base pairing rules
What does DNA polymerase do during replication?
Binds nucleotides together and corrects base pair errors
What message does mRNA carry?
The genetic code, that when translated, forms proteins
When does replication occur?
Once in every cell cycle
What is an environmental factor that influences gene expression?
The location of the cell in the embryo
When does mRNA processing take place?
The nucleotide sequence that are removed during mRNA processing are called what?
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