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Microscopic anatomy of the periodontium

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Connective tissue
supplies nutrients and blood
Epithelium
outer surface of body
seamless
Keratinized Tissue
protectioin against injury and invasion
palms of hands and soles of feet
strong and waterproof
no nuclei
Basal lamina
thin mat of extracellular matrix
Mucosa
stratisfied squamous, lots of cells and layers, flat
Non-keratinized tissue
nuclei
fatter cells
cushion for stress and wear
Desmosome
cell to cell junction
Hemidesmosome
cell to basal lamina junction
Crevicular fluid
health-little bit
disease-lots for defense
from connective tissue to sulcular epithelium
Junction Epithelium
nonkeratinized, thin, smooth interface
Connective tissue
nurish epithelium
fill spaces between tissues and organs of the body
no voids
cells are sparse-macrophages, neutrophils, extracellular matrix, fibroblasts, collegan fibers, capillaries
Enamel
Only oral tissue that does not contain connective tissue (rods)
Retention
scalloping between epithelium and connective tissue
increase adhesion by increasing surface area
Rete pegs
epithelial ridges
Connective tissue papillae
connective tissue projections
Oral epithelium
para or keratinized protection
crest of GM to MGJ
wavy interface with connective tissue
Sulcular epithelium
nonkeratinized
permeable
bleeding in unhealthy, ulcerations
Internal basal lamina
connects JE to tooth
hemidesmosome
most hemidesmosomes are coronal
External basal lamina
connects JE to connective tissue
hemidesmosome
barrier to biofilm and connective tissue
Junctional epithelium
seals off bacteria
plentiful cells, connected to each other
desmosomes
nonkeratinized
nuclei
Gingival connective tissue
solidity, attaches gingiva to cementum and bone
AKA lamina propria
5% fibroblasts and immune cells
55-65% extracellular matrix
30-35% gel like material
Alveologingival
bone to gingiva
Circular
around the tooth
Dentogingival
dentin to gingiva
Periostogingival
periosteum to gingiva
Intergingival
gingiva to gingiva
Transeptal
septum of bone to septum of bone
Biologic width
tooth surface covered by JE and fiber bundles above crest of bone
1 mm of JE and 1 mm of fiber bundles
about 2 mm total
always maintained, even if bone resorption is necessary
PDL
support, sensory, nutritive, formative, resorptive
fibroblasts, cemento/osteoblasts, extracellular matrix, rich nerve and blood supply
.05-.25 mm thickness
Alveolar crest
bone to cementum
Horizontal
bone to cementum horizontally
Interradicular
between bifurcated roots
Oblique
apical towards root
bone to cementum
Apical
apex of the tooth
Cementum
calcified layer of connective tissue that covers the tooth root
seals dentinal tubules
attaches PDL fibers to tooth
compensates for occlusal wear, forms more at the apex
organic matrix, mineralized portion-hydroxyapatite
no blood or nerve supply
Dentinal tubules
sensory
Acellular cementum
no cementocytes, cervical 1/3-1/2 of the root
no new cementum
removed with instrumentation
30-60 um thick
Cellular cementum
near apex
deposited through life
150-200 um thick
Overlap
cementum on enamel 60%
Meet
cementum meets enamel at CEJ 30%
Gap
gap between cementum andn enamel 10%, sensitivity
Alveolar Bone
mineralized connective tissue
ridgid
vascular and innervated, lymph
periods of formation/resorption
extracellular matrix