42 terms

AP Psych Ch. 08 - Memory

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memory
the ability to recall past events, images, ideas, or previously learned information or skills; the storage system that allows a person to retain and retrieve previously learned information
encoding
organizing sensory information so it can be processed by the nervous system
levels-of-processing approach
brain encodes information in different ways or on different levels; deeper processing leads to deeper memory
encoding specificity principle
retrieval cues that match original information work better
transfer appropriate processing
occurs when initial processing of information is similar to the process of retrieval; the better the match, the better the recall
storage
the process of maintaining or keeping information readily available; the locations where information is held
sensory memory
performs initial encoding; provides brief storage; also called sensory register
short-term storage
holds information for processing; fragile; also called short term memory or working memory
Lloyd and Margaret Peterson
did work on short-term memory
memory span
the number of items a person can reproduce from short-term memory, usually consisting of one or two chunks
chunks
manageable and meaningful units of information organized in such a way that it can be easily encoded, stored, and retrieved
rehearsal
process of repeatedly verbalizing, thinking about, or otherwise acting on or transforming information in order to keep that information active in memory
maintenance rehearsal
repetitive review of information with little or no interpretation
elaborative rehearsal
rehearsal involving repletion and analysis, in which a stimulus may be associated with (linked to) other information and further processed
working memory
Temporarily holds current or recent information for immediate or short-term use; Information is maintained for 20-30 seconds while active processing (e.g., rehearsal) takes place
long-term memory
storage mechanism that keeps a relatively permanent record of memory
procedural memory
memory for skills, including perceptual, motor, and cognitive skills required to complete tasks
declarative memory
memory for specific information
episodic memory
memory of specific personal events and situations (episodes) tagged with information about time
semantic memory
memory of ideas, rules, words, and general concepts about the world
explicit memory
conscious memory that a person is aware of
implicit memory
memory a person is not aware of possessing
consolidation
the process of changing a short-term memory to a long-term one
retrieval
process by which stored information is recovered from memory
ex post facto study
a type of design that contrasts groups of people who differ on some variable of interest to the researcher
state-dependent learning
the tendency to recall information learned while in a particular physiological state most accurately when one is in that physiological state again
primacy effect
the more accurate recall of items presented at the beginning of a series
recency effect
the more accurate recall of items presented at the end of a series
imagery
the creation or re-creation of a mental picture of a sensory or perceptual experience
schema
a conceptual framework that organizes information and allows a person to make sense of the world
decay
loss of information from memory as a result of disuse and the passage of time
Von Restorff effect
occurs when recall is better for a distinctive item, even if it occurs in the middle of a list
interference
the suppression of one bit of information by another
proactive interference
previously learned information interferes with the ability to learn new information
retroactive interference
newly learned information interferes with the ability to recall previously learned information
amnesia
inability to remember information (typically, all events within a specific period), usually due to physiological trauma
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory of events and experiences that preceded an amnesia-causing event
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events and experiences occurring from the time of an amnesia-causing event forward
motivated forgetting
occurs when frightening, traumatic events are forgotten because people want to forget them
long-term potentiation
the biochemical processes that make it easier for the neuron to respond again when it has been stimulated
flashbulb memories
detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence
Hermann Ebbinghaus
the first person to study memory scientifically and systematically; used nonsense syllables and recorded how many times he had to study a list to remember it well
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