Unit 1 Ap World History

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Indus Valley ciclization
civilization occupied fertile indus floodplain, technologically advanced--> irrigation, ceramics, and construction
Indus Valley trade
widespread trading contacts as far as meopetamia
natural resources North China Plain
timber, stone, and metal
loess
yellow brownish dust, these particles suspended in water giving the yellow river it's name
requirements for rice
took a lot of labor, prospered in the Yangzi River Valley, warmer climate
Neolithic population of china agriculture
millet, raised pigs and chickens, and used stone tools
oracle bones (Shang writing system)
The chief written remains are oracle bones used in divination, often turtle shells
what good did the Shang worship
Di, who could not be approached directly but could be reached indirectly through the ruler's ancestors
Shang elite
warrior aristocracy who enjoyed hunting and warfare. They fought with bronze weapons and rode on horse-drawn chariots.
Zhou territory
dependent on Shang, defeated them in 11th century BCE
Zhou mandate of heaven
came up with mandate of heaven to justify rule
why were the Zhou building built in a grid line following the stars
feng shui to maintain harmony
Zhou women
subordinate to men
Zhou advances in military
used iron and steel instead of bronze, learned how to fight on horseback
confucianism
created by Confucius, was not popular at the time, hierarchal view on the universe
Daoism
founded by Laozi, morals
Warring State period
Late Zhou period, because the states were fighting so much
location Nubia
located in Nile valley, between tropical Africa and Mediterranean world (3100 B.C.E.-350 C.E.)
Nubia's natural resources
gold, semiprecious stones, and copper
Kush
southern part of Nubia, known for metalworking and construction
Napata period
Nubia was ruling (660 BCE), continued Egyptian cultural influence--> hieroglyphics and pyramids, queens were influential
Moroe
capital of Nubia's kingdom in Egypt (800 B.C.E-350 C.E.)
origin of celtic society
Central Europe in the first millennium B.C.E. (1000-100 BCE)
celtic classes
elite-warriors
professionals- priests, and bards
common people
Duids
Celtic teachers, judges, and religious leaders
celtic beliefs
worshiped large number of gods and godessess
olmec civilization location
locate coast of Mexico, (1200-400 BCE)
olmec agriculture techniques
raised fields
olmec political structure
kinship
Chavin
first early civilization in south America (900-200 BCE)
Chavin fall
increased warfare
Mandate of Heaven
he could rule as long as he served as a guardian of his people.
The Nubians employed a matrilineal system in which the king
was succeeded by the son of his sister.
who overthrew the Shang dynasty
Zhou
llamas
were the only domesticated beasts of burden in the Americas.
Hittite capital
Anatolia
Hittite resources
copper, silver, and other metal deposits--> horse drawn carriages
New Kingdom Egypt
when they overthrew the Hyksos, they started a new period--> agresive attempts of conquering Nubia and Syria- Palestine
what was the Minoan civilization influenced by
Egypt, Syria and Mesopetamia
Mycenaean agriculture
organizing grain agriculture and wool production.
Akhenaten
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk.
Minoan
A Neolithic people that started around 3000BC, supposedly the earliest people on the island of Crete. They were excellent sailors & traded w/ Egypt & the Fertile Crescent. Were conquered by mainland Greece.
Minoan writing
has not been discovered
shaft graves
A term used for the burial sites of elite members of Mycenaean Greek society in the mid-second millennium B.C.E. At the bottom of deep shafts lined with stone slabs, the bodies were laid out along with gold and bronze jewelry, implements, weapons, and masks.
Linear B
A set of syllabic symbols, derived from the writing system of Minoan Crete, used in the Mycenaean palaces of the Late Bronze Age to write an early form of Greek. It was used primarily for palace records, and the surviving Linear B tablets provide substantial information about the economic organization of Mycenaean society and tantalizing clues about political, social, and religious institutions.
Mycenaean and Minoan sea travel
depended on wind and sail--> needed it in order to trade
Neo- Assyrian Empire
an empire extending from western Iran to Syria- Palestine conquered by the Assyrians of northern mesopotamia between the tenth and seventh centuries. Used force and terror and exploited wealth and labor of subjects. Preserved and continued Mesopotamian scientific developments
how was Neo-Assyrian empire so powerful?
they made other lands pay tribute
had control over metals--> control over international commerce
Phoenicians
A maritime civilization of the Mediterranean that developed extensive trade and communication networks as well as an early alphabetical script (1500 B.C.E).
Phoenicians city states
many city states, Tyre most important
Phoenicians colonies
cyprus, carthage,many others (created a triangle)
Carthage
huge city (400,00 pop), a lot of trade, high walls, present day Tunisia
Carthage political system
every two years leaders of elite families were elected to serve as heads of state, people who were elected for senate sat for life
Carthaginian religion
many gods, sacrifice of children in times of crisis,
Neo-Babylonians
Conquered the Assyrians. Second wave of Babyolonian rule. They were led by Nebuchadnezzar II, who diffused culture, causing a golden age.
all the Cretan palaces were destroyed around:
1450 BCE
From the point of view of Mycenaean elites, the most important import were
metals
Israelite social standings
eldest men, and first born sons were the most powerful and well respected
men could have affairs, but if a woman did she could be put to death