Kirby - Emerging Answers
"Effective programs change teens' sexual behavior
by acting on the risk and protective factors
that influence such behavior."
CATEGORY: the process of developing the curriculum
1. Involved multiple people with expertise in theory,
research, and sex and STD/ HIV education to develop the curriculum
2. Assessed relevant needs and assets of the target group
3. Used a logic model approach that specified
the health goals, the types of behavior affecting those goals, the risk and protective factors affecting those types of behavior, and activities to change those risk and protective factors
4. Designed activities consistent with community
values and available resources (e.g., staff time, staff skills, facility space and supplies)
5. Pilot-tested the program
CATEGORY: the contents of the curriculum itself
curriculum goals and objectives
6. Focused on clear health goals—the prevention of STD/HIV, pregnancy, or both
7. Focused narrowly on specific types of behavior leading to these health goals (e.g., abstaining from
sex or using condoms or other contraceptives), gave clear messages about these types of behavior, and
addressed situations that might lead to them and how to avoid them
8. Addressed sexual psychosocial risk and protective factors that affect sexual behavior (e.g., knowledge,
perceived risks, values, attitudes, perceived norms, and self-efficacy) and changed them activities and teaching methodologies
9.Created a safe social environment for young people to participate
10. Included multiple activities to change each of the targeted risk and protective factors
11. Employed instructionally sound teaching methods that actively involved participants, that helped them personalize the information, and that were designed to change the targeted risk and protective factors
12. Employed activities, instructional methods, and behavioral messages that were appropriate to the teens' culture, developmental age, and sexual experience
13. Covered topics in a logical sequence
CATEGORY: the process of implementing
14. Secured at least minimal support from appropriate authorities, such as
departments of health, school districts, or
15. Selected educators with desired characteristics
(whenever possible), trained them, and
provided monitoring, supervision, and support
16. If needed, implemented activities to recruit
and retain teens and overcome barriers to
their involvement (e.g., publicized the program,
offered food or obtained consent)
17. Implemented virtually all activities with reasonable fidelity
Behavior theory model created by consolidating five major theories of human behavior that were being used. (Ramos, 2008)
The theory is composed of two sequences of behavioral determinants, proximal and near proximal.
Proximal: Environmental constraints, knowledge and skills for behavioral performance, intentions or decision to perform behavior, salience of behavior, and habit and autonomic processes -> behavior
Near proximal: Expectancies, social norms, self concept/image, affect and emotions, and self efficacy -> Intentions or decision.
Gist: The "banking" concept of education as an instrument of oppression—its presuppositions—a critique; the problem-posing concept of education as an instrument for liberation—-its presuppositions; the
"banking" concept and the teacher-student contradiction; the
problem-posing concept and the supersedence of the teacher-
student contradiction; education: a mutual process, world-mediated; people as uncompleted beings, conscious of their incompletion, and their attempt to be more fully human.
KEY Critical engagement
Education thus becomes an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor. Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiques and makes deposits which the students patiently receive, memorize, and repeat. This is the "banking" concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filing, and storing the deposits.
"Problem-posing" education, responding to the essence of consciousness—intentionality—rejectscommuniques and embodies communication. It epitomizes the special characteristic of consciousness. problem-posing education, which breaks with the vertical patterns characteristic of banking education, can fulfill its function as the practice of freedom only if it can overcome the above contradiction. Through dialogue, the teacher-of-the-students and the stu-dents-of-the-teacher cease to exist and a new term emerges: teacher-student with students-teachers.
Affective: Referring to feelings, attitudes and values - the heart and soul
-Goal: to motivate students
-Methods: Discussion, dyads, interviews, fish bowl, case studies, stories and introspective methods (such as focus writing or guided imagery)
Behavioral: Referring to actions, involving the body (including verbal and non-verbal skills)
-Goal: help develop skills and practice cognitive learning
-Methods: Role play, problem solving, simulations and real life homework
Cognitive: Referring to thinking or the mind.
-Goal: give information and help learners examine concepts, facts and ideas.
-Methods: presentations, display of model and objects, videos, anonymous questions, task groups, readings, research, etc.