15 terms

Pedagogy of Sex Ed

Leslie Kantor Fall 2014
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Terms in this set (...)

Characteristics of effective sex education programs
Kirby - Emerging Answers
"Effective programs change teens' sexual behavior
by acting on the risk and protective factors
that influence such behavior."

17 Steps:
CATEGORY: the process of developing the curriculum
1. Involved multiple people with expertise in theory,
research, and sex and STD/ HIV education to develop the curriculum
2. Assessed relevant needs and assets of the target group
3. Used a logic model approach that specified
the health goals, the types of behavior affecting those goals, the risk and protective factors affecting those types of behavior, and activities to change those risk and protective factors
4. Designed activities consistent with community
values and available resources (e.g., staff time, staff skills, facility space and supplies)
5. Pilot-tested the program
CATEGORY: the contents of the curriculum itself
curriculum goals and objectives
6. Focused on clear health goals—the prevention of STD/HIV, pregnancy, or both
7. Focused narrowly on specific types of behavior leading to these health goals (e.g., abstaining from
sex or using condoms or other contraceptives), gave clear messages about these types of behavior, and
addressed situations that might lead to them and how to avoid them
8. Addressed sexual psychosocial risk and protective factors that affect sexual behavior (e.g., knowledge,
perceived risks, values, attitudes, perceived norms, and self-efficacy) and changed them activities and teaching methodologies
9.Created a safe social environment for young people to participate
10. Included multiple activities to change each of the targeted risk and protective factors
11. Employed instructionally sound teaching methods that actively involved participants, that helped them personalize the information, and that were designed to change the targeted risk and protective factors
12. Employed activities, instructional methods, and behavioral messages that were appropriate to the teens' culture, developmental age, and sexual experience
13. Covered topics in a logical sequence
CATEGORY: the process of implementing
the curriculum
14. Secured at least minimal support from appropriate authorities, such as
departments of health, school districts, or
community organizations
15. Selected educators with desired characteristics
(whenever possible), trained them, and
provided monitoring, supervision, and support
16. If needed, implemented activities to recruit
and retain teens and overcome barriers to
their involvement (e.g., publicized the program,
offered food or obtained consent)
17. Implemented virtually all activities with reasonable fidelity
Characteristics of effective digital health interventions
Characteristics:
1. Must apply to diverse groups (i.e. if online and free, must be culturally accessible from NYC to the suburbs or Birmington, AL, to rural Kansas).
2. Must have vigorous, evidence based methods.

Pro: Increases access to information (i.e. people who live in communities that don't receive sex education have another venue to learn), online community provides information and access to marginalized communities (i.e. lgbt youth support on something like tumblr can information share),

Con: No standard evaluation, issues of anonymity, not accessible to hyper marginalized, not always able to measure if program is being delivered as intended
Stages of adolescent sexual development
Cognitive Process:
Elementary School - concrete thinking
-focused primarily on gender roles
Middle School - mix of concrete and abstract thinking
-salient understanding of puberty
-initial understandings of sexuality including masturbation, sexual touching
-skills development focused on hygiene and bodily maintenance
High School - moving into abstract thinking, but still in development
-sexuality awareness development
-skills regarding resources

TEXT: Smetana
Important SOCIAL Factors:
Parent-Adolescent Relationships
Sibling Relationships
Grandparents and Other Relatives
Peer Relationships
Romantic Relationships
Community Engagement
Unified Theory of Behavior Change
Behavior theory model created by consolidating five major theories of human behavior that were being used. (Ramos, 2008)

The theory is composed of two sequences of behavioral determinants, proximal and near proximal.

Proximal: Environmental constraints, knowledge and skills for behavioral performance, intentions or decision to perform behavior, salience of behavior, and habit and autonomic processes -> behavior

Near proximal: Expectancies, social norms, self concept/image, affect and emotions, and self efficacy -> Intentions or decision.
Crafting SMART programs and learning objectives
Specific - must not be vague or lofty. Requires attributes that are specific to the intervention in question.

Measurable - must provide the roots of how to measure the intervention. Objectives can be arbitrary, for example, "will answer 5 out of 7 knowledge questions correctly, etc"

Attainable - must be reasonable considering the intervention design and can be done within the time allotted.

Relevant - must be applicable to the school, area, county, etc in which the intervention is taking place. Objectives must address how relevant these measurements are to assess evaluation.

Time bound - Objectives have little meaning if there is no time specific to the desired intervention.
Evaluation strategies and what can be concluded from various evaluation approaches
WHO
4.1 Planning the evaluation: This important initial stage involves collecting data, in a baseline study, to assess the situation before going on to develop the program. Based on the information collected, it is then necessary to define the aims of an evaluation, and to consider the different types of evaluation methods that could be used for your evaluation.
4.2 Choosing the evaluation methods: Once the type of evaluation has been determined, there are different methods that can be applied to carry out an evaluation. This section describes the different study types possible, explaining the advantages and disadvantages of each type of method. It outlines the types of performance indicators that can be used to measure the success of a program. This section also briefly describes how to conduct an economic evaluation, and
provides guidance on calculating sample size.
4.3 Dissemination and feedback: This section describes how to feed the result of an evaluation back into the planning and implementation stages, as well as ways
that the results of an evaluation can be shared with different interested parties.
Freire - Knowledge banking vs. Problem solving
Gist: The "banking" concept of education as an instrument of oppression—its presuppositions—a critique; the problem-posing concept of education as an instrument for liberation—-its presuppositions; the
"banking" concept and the teacher-student contradiction; the
problem-posing concept and the supersedence of the teacher-
student contradiction; education: a mutual process, world-mediated; people as uncompleted beings, conscious of their incompletion, and their attempt to be more fully human.

KEY Critical engagement

Knowledge Banking:
Education thus becomes an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor. Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiques and makes deposits which the students patiently receive, memorize, and repeat. This is the "banking" concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filing, and storing the deposits.

Problem Posing:
"Problem-posing" education, responding to the essence of consciousness—intentionality—rejectscommuniques and embodies communication. It epitomizes the special characteristic of consciousness. problem-posing education, which breaks with the vertical patterns characteristic of banking education, can fulfill its function as the practice of freedom only if it can overcome the above contradiction. Through dialogue, the teacher-of-the-students and the stu-dents-of-the-teacher cease to exist and a new term emerges: teacher-student with students-teachers.
Writing processing questions that move learners around the experiential learning cycle
Experiential Learning Cycle
1. Experience (Do) - Activity/Perform
2. Share (Reflect) - results, actions, observations, publicity
3. Process (Reflect) - by discussing, looking at the experience, analyze, reflect
4. Generalize (Apply) - to connect the experience to real-world examples
5. Apply (Apply) - application of learned concept to different examples

EXAMPLE: Teaching about self esteem w/ Taylor Swift Video.
1. Watch the video
-What can we do to frame our conversation about self esteem?
2. Discuss the video
-What did you see in the music video?
-Who did you see in the video?
-What actions took place in the video?
-What is the message about this video?
3. Reflect on video
-How did the video make you feel about yourself?
-Did you see yourself in the video? Who would you be?
-Would you do the same things as Taylor Swift?
4. Shift to individual experiences
-What can you take away from this experience?
-Do you think you could just "shake it off" like Taylor Swift? Why or why not?
-Do you think that you cause any of the problems that Taylor Swift mentions? Why or why not?
5. Find examples relevant to group
-In high school, do you feel like you can easily "shake off" set backs?
-If you don't do well on a test, do you think you could do better next time?
-If your boy/girlfriend doesn't call you back right away, will you fixate on it?
Potential learning strategies to address cognitive, affective and behavioral domains
Hedgepeth's ABCs:
Affective: Referring to feelings, attitudes and values - the heart and soul
-Goal: to motivate students
-Methods: Discussion, dyads, interviews, fish bowl, case studies, stories and introspective methods (such as focus writing or guided imagery)

Behavioral: Referring to actions, involving the body (including verbal and non-verbal skills)
-Goal: help develop skills and practice cognitive learning
-Methods: Role play, problem solving, simulations and real life homework

Cognitive: Referring to thinking or the mind.
-Goal: give information and help learners examine concepts, facts and ideas.
-Methods: presentations, display of model and objects, videos, anonymous questions, task groups, readings, research, etc.
Managing groups and devising learning activities to maximize learning
- Not to respond directly to an individual when they ask questions in case it would make them feel singled out
- To repeat back/summarize what was said in order to show that you are present. Use only when points support the direction you are moving the group in
- Throw back opinion or controversial topic questions to the group rather than answering them yourself
- Activities should cover different kinds of learning styles (cognitive, affective, behavioral), and involve some amount of movement so that group does not get too comfortable/bored in one place
-"Rabbi-style" - answer a question by asking another for in depth thinking.
Resources available for data and materials relevant to sexual education
See resource list from class 15.
Answering questions for different age learners
How to respond to children:
• Take off adult glasses
o Distinguish between adult sexuality and childhood sexuality
o Gear information to the child's level of development
o Less is better than more
o Address sexuality issues proactively rather than retroactively
o Keep the door open for communication
o Set up opportunities for children to learn through observation and for children to discover things for themselves
o Create anti-bias environment in classroom / home
o Don't forget incorporating media into presentations
• Making abstract ideas concrete
o Ask questions
o Use pictures and diagrams
o Link new information to old
o Use simple language and make sure that new terms are clear
• General Guidelines
o Be Honest
o Answer questions in age appropriate language
o Avoid technical language or jargon
o Find out more about the child's question
o Check for understanding
o See children where they are at in their development
Responding to arguments against sex education
Argument: "Teaching kids about sex will make them want to do it more without delay."
Response:

Argument: "Sexual education should old be taught by the parents."
Response:

Argument: "Abstinence only education will prevent all sexually transmitted infections."
Response:

Argument: "Sexual education imposes sexual immorality on our children."
Response:
Self-disclosure - benefits and risks
SEE: week 8, dyson reading.

Benefits:
- builds trust
-highlights common human experiences, makes someone relatable
- Could help the subject matter resonate more deeply with participants, and promote additional sharing from the group

Risks:
- Could blur the lines between instructor/participant, calling into question one's authority over subject matter
- Sharing personal information (even if related to topic of discussion) is not always relevant to learning objectives, and may even detract from them
- Could be interpreted as a sign of biases that motivate one's presentation of subject matter
- Could distract participants - participants may be more willing to please instructor rather than ingest new knowledge.

Self Disclosure Variable
1. Student:
a. Length of relationship/timing
b. Role expectations
c. Perception of competence

2. Intervention variables
a. Amount
b. Level of Intimacy
c. Valence

3. Instructor Variables
a. Intent
b. Flexibility
c. Personal characteristics
Questions to asked to assess effective sex education programs
Hedgepeth - Teaching about Sexuality and HIV
1. Does the program present a positive, accurate and comprehensive view of human sexuality?
2. Does the program respect and empower students?
3. Does the program respect cultural and sexual pluralism and promote universial values?
4. Does the program address a diversity of learning styles and abilitis?
5. Does the program address alll three learning domains?
6. Is the program interdisciplinary and integrated "across the curriculum"?
7. Is the curriculum comprehensive in scope, age-and experientially-appropriate, and logically sequential?
8. Is the program supported and reinforced by the family, peers, religious groups, clinics and local media?
9. Are the teachers willing, comfortable and well trained?
10. Does the program promote lifelong learning?