Chapter 15 (Age of Exploration) Vocab

Vocabulary for McKay Chapter 15, Age of Exploration

Terms in this set (...)

great commercial port city of the 15th century in Southeast Asia that was taken over by the Portuguese in 1511
a trading post like Malacca where goods were shipped for temporary sotrage while waiting to be distributed to other places
Mansa Musa
successor to Sundiata and king of the Mali empire in West Africa, who is known for his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324 and for using his wealth to make Mali empire and capital of Timbuktu a prosperous society full of culture and learning
Prince Henry the Navigator
key player in early phases of Portuguese exploration whose financial and moral support of both voyages of exploration and the studies of geography and navigation helped launch Portugal into the Age of Exploration with lots of success
General History of the Indies
a detailed eyewitness account of the plants, animals, and peoples of the Americas written by Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo that was widely read in 16th century Europe
small, light, 3-masted sailing ship developed by Portuguese in 15th century that, though slower than the galley, could hold more cargo and was more maneuverable
Ptolemy's Geography
collection of the geographical knowledge of the classical world written by Hellenistic Egyptian Ptolemy in 2nd Century AD; it was republished by Arab scholars in 1410 and was major source of knowledge for European explorers
Vasco da Gama
a Portuguese explorer who commanded fleet in search of sea route to Indian Ocean trade in 1497; his fleet was successful, rounding Cape of Good Hope and crossing Arabian Sea to Calicut in India, and he returned to Lisbon with spices and cloth, showing possibility of profitable trade with the East through a Cape route
Santa Fe capitulations
they named Columbus viceroy over any territory he might discover and gave him 1/10 of the journey's material rewards
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 treaty between Spain and Portugal that gave Spain everything to west of imaginary line drawn down Atlantic and gave Portugal everything to east of this line
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese mariner commissioned by Charles V in 1519 to find westward route to Moluccas; although he was killed in the Philippines, his surviving crew were the first people to circumnavigate the globe
Hernando Cortès
Spanish conquistador who began conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519 and was able to destroy Aztec monarchy, gain complete control of Tenochtitlan, and extend jurisdiction over much of Aztec empire
capital of Aztec empire (now Mexico City) that was heart of advanced Aztec civilization
Incan creator-god with whom the Incans associated the Spanish
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who began conquest of Incan empire in 1532; he held the Incan ruler hostage, collected enormous ransom in gold, then killed ruler anyway, leading to decades of violence after which Spanish gained control of Incan empire in 1570s
encomienda system
legalized form of slavery established by the Spanish that gave conquerors right to employ groups of natives as agricultural laborers, miners, tribute-payers, etc; this system exploited the natives and led to great native population loss
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies across Atlantic between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
price revolution
period of widespread rapid inflation that was a major problem for European nations between the 15th and 17th centuries
Spanish Armada
fleet sent by Philip II of Spain to invade England that was destroyed by storms and English fleet before it even reached Netherlands
school of thought founded on doubt that total certainty or definitive knowledge is ever attainable; skeptics were cautious, critical, and suspended judgment
Alfonso de Albuquerque
Portuguese governor of India who had the idea that Portuguese should try to control coastal forts of Indian Ocean; he led the military efforts to conquer these forts and helped to establish the Portuguese empire in the Indian Ocean
board of twelve to fifteen judges that advised the viceroy and was the highest judicial body in the Spanish colonies in the Americas
Aztec Empire: when, where, capital, conquered by whom, characteristics of religion
Mesoamerican militaristic empire of the 14th to early 16th centuries which, through conquest, had carved out a large state, centered at Tenochtitlan, in the valley of Mexico; conquered by Cortes; were polytheistic and honored sun god above all, practiced human sacrifices
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish explorer who led an expedition across Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean
Martin Behaim
Portuguese navigator and geographer who made the first globe, though it was not completely correct
John Cabot
Italian explorer who discovered the mainland of North America on 1497 English expedition and explored its Canadian and New England , claiming this land for England
Sebastian Cabot
Italian explorer and son of John Cabot who led an English expedition to find Northwest Passage and a Spanish expedition that explored the La Plata region of Brazil
Pedro Cabral
Portuguese explorer who accidentally discovered Brazil in 1500 while sailing to India and then returned to Portugal with 300,000 pounds of spices
Jacques Cartier
French explorer who made several voyages between 1534 and 1541 and discovered the St. Lawrence region of Canada, claiming this land for France
Bartholomew de las Casas
Franciscan missionary who wrote about atrocities of encomiendas system and fought for the rights of the Native Americans
Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer who discovered the New World in the service of Spain, establishing the Columbian Exchange between the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization
Spanish 'conquerors'/soldiers in the New World who were searching for gold, God, glory (3Gs)
Bartholomew Diaz
Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope in Africa and returned to Portugal in 1488
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and was the most renowned seamen of the Elizabethean Age, often sent by Queen Elizabeth I to raid Spanish ships/settlements for gold
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Monarchs who united Spain and were responsible for the Reconquista, the Inquisition, Columbus' voyage to the New World
Sir Martin Frobisher
English explorer who made three voyages across the Atlantic Ocean in the 1500s, searching for the NW Passage
Sir John Hawkins
English naval administrator and commander who was placed in charge of building and designing the English navy in defense against the Spanish Armada; he was also the first English slave trader
Incas: when, where, capital, conquered by whom
Meoamerican empire of the 14th to 16th centuries in the Andes Mountains that had carved out a large state centered at Cuzco by conquering and instigating harsh rule over other tribes; conquered by Pizarro
Isthmus of Panama
a narrow strip of land connecting North and South America which Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Caribbean Sea
people of mixed European and Native American descent in the New World
Northwest Passage
water route between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through North America that was highly sought-after by european explorers
Pope Alexander VI
corrupt, worldly, ambitious pope who signed the Treaty of Tordesillas
Sir Walter Raleigh
Englishman and a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I who explored the Americas and sponsored the first (and ultimately failed) English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina
Roanoke Settlement
the failed "lost colony" founded by Sir Walter Raleigh
Giovanni da Verrazano
Italian sea captain sent by France to explore the eastern coast of North America and look for the Northwest Passage