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Biology 112 Chapters 1-2 study guide.
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Terms in this set (38)
ALL organisms are made up of cells, and EVERY cell comes from pre-existing cells.
FOUR major elements found in most living organisms (COHN)
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen.
Number of protons
protons AND neutrons= no charge.
Elements with the SAME number of protons, and DIFFERENT number of NEUTRONS.
are the electrons that are present in the OUTERMOST orbital.
A bond in which 2 atoms share electrons with each other.
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
A covalent bond in which there is and EQUAL sharing of electrons between both atoms.
Polar Covalent Bonds
A covalent bond in which there is slightly unequal sharing of electrons because of the atoms' electronegativity characteristics.
A bond in which electrons are completely transferred from 1 atom in a molecule to another atom.
Are charged atoms/elements.
Why is Water an efficient solvent?
Because water has a partial POSITIVE charge on the two hydrogens, and a partial NEGATIVE charge on the oxygen. A dipole movement is created and it becomes POLAR.
The binding between like molecules. Water with water is cohesive because it hydro bonds good with other water molecules.
Binding between unlike molecules (stickiness)
A force on the surface of a liquid that lets it resist an outside force.
The mass of an object/ volume being taken up by that mass.
Water is a unique compound that has:
a denser liquid state than a solid state.
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celcius.
Water has a high specific heat because:
hydrogen bonds in its structure allow it to be better stabilized when undergoing temperatures.
Hydrogen bonding also:
accounts for its heat of vaporization, its required energy to change 1 gram of liquid to gas, and being high.
Acid base reactions and pH
Water continuously dissociates into both hydronium and hydroxide.
substances that readily give up a proton in dissociation and decrease pH.
Substances that readily give up a hydroxide in dissociation and increase pH.
Pure water at 25 degrees celcius has a H+ and OH- concentration of:
1.0 x 10^-7 M
How do chemical reactions happen?
Reactants are reacted on the left side of the chemical reaction to obtain enough energy to transition to the products on the right side of the chemical reaction.
Absorb heat on the reactant side,
They release the heat on the product side
One molecule loses electrons, and another one gains electrons.
is always paired with an electron acceptor.
What is energy?
the capacity to do work or supply heat.
Stored energy within a compound that allows it the ability to do work.
Energy that is being used and distributed to an object in motion
Kinetic energy of molecular motion in which heat is being released.
Thermodynamic Law 1
Energy in a closed system is always conserved. All energy in the system stays the same. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only transferred or transformed.
Thermodynamic Law 2
Entropy within an isolated system always increases.
Miller-Urey Experiment (prebiotic soup model)
Experiment designed to simulate hypothetical conditions thought at the time of early Earth when the chemical origins of life began.
What did the Miller-Urey Experiment include?
it included combining water, methane, ammonium, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide. Electrical sparks were made to simulate lighting in an effort to create viable building blocks of life. Organic compounds were found to be created like Amino Acids.
A testable statement to explain a phenomenon or a set of observations.
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