NURS 441 Concepts: Exam 1

Effects of nicotine on blood vessels and lung tissue have been proven to increase pathological changes, leading to heart disease and lung cancer.
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A patient who started smoking in adolescence and continues to smoke 40 years later comes to the clinic. The nurse understands that this patient has an increased risk for being diagnosed with which disorder:
a. Alcoholism and hypertension
b. Obesity and diabetes
c. Stress-related illnesses
d. Cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer
A patient has been diagnosed with severe iron deficiency anemia. During physical assessment for which of the following symptoms would the nurse assess to determine the patient's oxygen status?
a. Increased breathlessness but increased activity tolerance
b. Decreased breathlessness and decreased activity tolerance
c. Increased activity tolerance and decreased breathlessness
d. Decreased activity tolerance and increased breathlessness
A patient is admitted to the emergency department with suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. Even though the patient's color is ruddy, not cyanotic, the nurse understands that the patient is at a risk for decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood because carbon monoxide does which of the following:
a. Stimulates hyperventilation, causing respiratory alkalosis
b. Forms a strong bond with hemoglobin, creating a functional anemia.
c. Stimulates hypoventilation, causing respiratory acidosis
d. Causes alveoli to overinflate, leading to atelectasis
A 6-year-old boy is admitted to the pediatric unit with chills and a fever of 104°F (40°C). What physiological process explains why the child is at risk for developing dyspnea?
a. Fever increases metabolic demands, requiring increased oxygen need.
b. Blood glucose stores are depleted, and the cells do not have energy to use oxygen.
c. Carbon dioxide production increases as result of hyperventilation.
d. Carbon dioxide production decreases as a result of hypoventilation.
The nurse is caring for a patient who has decreased mobility. Which intervention is a simple and cost-effective method for reducing the risks of stasis of pulmonary secretions and decreased chest wall expansion?
a. Antibiotics
b. Frequent change of position
c. Oxygen humidification
d. Chest physiotherapy
A patient is admitted with severe lobar pneumonia. Which of the following assessment findings would indicate that the patient needs airway suctioning?
a. Coughing up thick sputum only occasionally
b. Coughing up thin, watery sputum easily after nebulization
c. Decreased independent ability to cough
d. Lung sounds clear only after coughing
A patient was admitted after a motor vehicle accident with multiple fractured ribs. Respiratory assessment includes signs/symptoms of secondary pneumothorax, which includes which of the following?
a. Sharp pleuritic pain that worsens on inspiration
b. Crackles over lung bases of affected lung
c. Tracheal deviation toward the affected lung
d. Increased diaphragmatic excursion on side of rib fractures
A patient has been newly diagnosed with emphysema. In discussing his condition with the nurse, which of his statements would indicate a need for further education?
a. "I'll make sure that I rest between activities so I don't get so short of breath."
b. "I'll rest for 30 minutes before I eat my meal."
c. "If I have trouble breathing at night, I'll use two to three pillows to prop up."
d. "If I get short of breath, I'll turn up my oxygen level to 6 L/min."
The nurse goes to assess a new patient and finds him lying supine in bed. The patient tells the nurse that he feels short of breath. Which nursing action should the nurse perform first?
a. Raise the head of the bed to 45 degrees.
b. Take his oxygen saturation with a pulse oximeter.
c. Take his blood pressure and respiratory rate.
d. Notify the health care provider of his shortness of breath.