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Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
Terms in this set (57)
What is the definition of "obsessions" under the DSM-5?
- Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and unwanted, and that in most individuals cause marked anxiety or distress
- The individual attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts, urges, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action (i.e., by performing a compulsion)
What is the definition of "compulsions" under the DSM-5?
- Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly
- The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent, or are clearly excessive (NOTE: young children may not be able to articulate the aims of these behaviors/mental acts)
# of criteria for OCD
Criterion B for OCD
The obsessions or compulsions are time-consuming or cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning
Criterion A for OCD
Presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both
Criterion C for OCD
The obsessive-compulsive symptoms are not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition
Criterion D for OCD
The disturbance is not better explained by the symptoms of another mental disorder
What are the specifiers for OCD?
- With good or fair insight: person recognizes that obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs are definitely or probably not true or that they may or may not be true
- With poor insight: person thinks obsessive-compulsive beliefs are probably true
- With absent insight/delusional beliefs: person is completely convinced that obsessive-compulsive beliefs are true
What is the prevalence rate of OCD?
- 1.2% 12mo in the US
- females are affected at a slightly higher rate than males in adulthood (vice versa in childhood)
What is the typical age of onset for OCD?
- mean age of onset in the US is 19.5 years
- 25% of cases start by age 14 years
- males have an earlier age at onset than females
What are some risk and prognostic factors related to OCD?
- greater internalizing symptoms
- higher negative emotionality
- behavioral inhibition in childhood
- physical and sexual abuse in childhood or other stressful or traumatic events
- various infectious agents and/or post-infectious autoimmune syndrome
- rate of OCD among 1st degree relatives of adults with OCD is 2x higher
- among 1st degree relatives of individuals with onset of OCD in childhood or adolescence, the rate is 10x higher
What are some gender-related diagnostic issues for OCD?
- males have an earlier age at onset of OCD and are more likely to have co-morbid tic disorders
- females more likely to have symptoms in the cleaning dimension
- males more likely to have symptoms in the forbidden thoughts and symmetry dimensions
What conditions are comorbid with OCD?
- anxiety disorder
- depressive or bipolar disorder
- obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
- up to 30% of individuals with OCD also have a lifetime tic disorder
- other obsessive-compulsive disorders
- some disorders characterized by impulsivity
- schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder
- eating disorders
# of criteria for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
Criterion A for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
Preoccupation with 1 or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance that are not observable or appear slight to others
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