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Napoleon and Congress of Vienna
Terms in this set (43)
was quite a short man—just five feet three inches tall. However, he cast a long shadow over the history of modern times. He would come to be recognized as one of the world's greatest military geniuses, along with Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hannibal of Carthage, and Julius Caesar of Rome. In only four years, from 1795 to 1799, Napoleon rose from a relatively obscure position as an officer in the French army to become master of France.
Napoleon Bonaparte: birthplace
Napoleon Bonaparte: school
When he was nine years old, his parents sent him to a military school. In 1785, at the age of 16, he finished school and became a lieutenant in the artillery.
Napoleon Bonaparte: occupation
When the Revolution broke out, Napoleon joined the army of the new government.
Napoleon Bonaparte: proves himself
When royalist rebels marched on the National Convention, a government official told Napoleon to defend the delegates. Napoleon and his gunners greeted the thousands of royalists with a cannonade. Within minutes, the attackers fled in panic and confusion. Napoleon Bonaparte became the hero of the hour and was hailed throughout Paris as the savior of the French republic.
Napoleon Boneparte: Directory
appointed Napoleon to lead a French army against the forces of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia.
Napoleon Boneparte: initial victories
Crossing the Alps, the young general swept into Italy and won a series of remarkable victories.
Traveled light- used speed
Napoleon Bonaparte: expedition
Next, in an attempt to protect French trade interests and to disrupt British trade with India, Napoleon led an expedition to Egypt. But he was unable to repeat the successes he had achieved in Europe. His army was pinned down in Egypt, and the British admiral Horatio Nelson defeated his naval forces. However, Napoleon managed to keep stories about his setbacks out of the newspapers and thereby remained a great hero to the people of France.
Napoleon Bonaparte: seizes control
By 1799, the Directory had lost control of the political situation and the confidence of the French people. When Napoleon returned from Egypt, his friends urged him to seize political power. Napoleon took action in early November 1799. His troops surrounded the national legislature and drove out most of its members. The remaining lawmakers voted to dissolve the Directory. In its place, they established a group of three consuls, one of whom was Napoleon. Napoleon quickly took the title of first consul and assumed the powers of a dictator. A sudden seizure of power like Napoleon's is known as a coup—from the French phrase coup d'état (koo day•TAH), or "blow to the state."
Napoleon Bonaparte: coup d'état
n. a sudden seizure of political power in a nation.
"blow to the state"
Napoleon Bonaparte: plebiscite
n. a direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal.
Napoleon Bonaparte: rules
At first, Napoleon pretended to be the constitutionally chosen leader of a free republic. In 1800, a plebiscite (PLEHB•ih•syt), or vote of the people, was held to approve a new constitution. Desperate for strong leadership, the people voted overwhelmingly in favor of the constitution. This gave all real power to Napoleon as first consul.
Napoleon Bonaparte: changes and preservations
-national banking system
-efficient tax collection
-dismissed corrupt officials
-trained government officials
-signed "concordat" with Church
-made peasants and clergy happy
Napoleon Bonaparte: concordat
n. a formal agreement—especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of Church affairs.
Pope Pius VII
Napoleon Bonaparte: emperor
In 1804, Napoleon decided to make himself emperor, and the French voters supported him. On December 2, 1804, dressed in a splendid robe of purple velvet, Napoleon walked down the long aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. The pope waited for him with a glittering crown. As thousands watched, the new emperor took the crown from the pope and placed it on his own head. With this gesture, Napoleon signaled that he was more powerful than the Church, which had traditionally crowned the rulers of France.
Napoleon Bonaparte: empire
Napoleon was not content simply to be master of France. He wanted to control the rest of Europe and to reassert French power in the Americas. He envisioned his western empire including Louisiana, Florida, French Guiana, and the French West Indies. He knew that the key to this area was the sugar-producing colony of Saint Domingue (now called Haiti) on the island of Hispaniola.
Napoleon Bonaparte: Louisiana purchase
After the failure of the expedition to Saint Domingue, Napoleon decided to cut his losses in the Americas. He offered to sell all of the Louisiana Territory to the United States, and in 1803 President Jefferson's administration agreed to purchase the land for $15 million. Napoleon saw a twofold benefit to the sale. First, he would gain money to finance operations in Europe. Second, he would punish the British. "The sale assures forever the power of the United States," he observed, "and I have given England a rival who, sooner or later, will humble her pride."
Napoleon Bonaparte: ambitions to Europe
Battle of Austerlitz
Russia and Austria - 90,000 troops
France - 62,000 troops - high ground
Napoleon uses Alexander I's aggression against him
Uses fog to hide troops behind hill
Alexander the I's troops charge and Napoleon's troop use cannons to make them retreat
Napoleon Bonaparte: success forces treaties
In time, Napoleon's battlefield successes forced the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia to sign peace treaties. These successes also enabled him to build the largest European empire since that of the Romans. France's only major enemy left undefeated was the great naval power, Britain.
Napoleon Bonaparte: Battle of Trafalgar
n. an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Napoleon Bonaparte: Horatio Nelson
was as brilliant in warfare at sea as Napoleon was in warfare on land. In a bold maneuver, he split the larger French fleet, capturing many ships.
Napoleon Bonaparte: The Battle of Trafalgar: result
-The destruction of the French fleet had two major results. First, it ensured the supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years.
-Forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading Britain. He had to look for another way to control his powerful enemy across the English Channel. Eventually, Napoleon's extravagant efforts to crush Britain would lead to his own undoing.
Napoleon Bonaparte: enemies
Britain, Portugal, Sweden, Ottoman Empire
Napoleon Bonaparte: land
Puppet Rulers: Spain, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and a number of German kingdoms in Central Europe
Napoleon Bonaparte: The French Empire: collapse
The French Empire was huge but unstable. Napoleon was able to maintain it at its greatest extent for only five years—from 1807 to 1812. Then it quickly fell to pieces. Its sudden collapse was caused in part by Napoleon's actions.
Napoleon Bonaparte: marriage
- Napoleon loved Josephine
- He loved himself the most
- Marie Louis is from the Hapsburg family, one of the most respected families in Europe
- Napoleon II had a huge head
- Napoleon softens and doesn't want to wage war anymore because of his family
His wife, Josephine, had failed to bear him a child. He, therefore, divorced her and formed an alliance with the Austrian royal family by marrying Marie Louise, the grandniece of Marie Antoinette. In 1811, Marie Louise gave birth to a son, Napoleon II, whom Napoleon named king of Rome.
Napoleon Bonaparte: The Continental System
n. Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Napoleon Bonaparte: The Peninsular War (1808 - 1814)
n. a conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon's French troops out of Spain
Napoleon Bonaparte: The Invasion of Russia
Grand Army (600,000 troops)
540,000 die or are captured
Napoleon Bonaparte: Napoleon suffers defeat
Tried to kill himself before being banished
Delivers an amazing speech
Kisses the French flag
Napoleon Bonaparte: The Hundred Days
n. the brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French king and again becoming emperor of France.
Louis XVI's brother becomes unpopular as ruler
Napoleon escapes Elba
Joyous crowds welcome Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte: Battle of Waterloo
in Belgium. On June 18, 1815, Napoleon attacked. The British army defended its ground all day. Late in the afternoon, the Prussian army arrived. Together, the British and the Prussian forces attacked the French. Two days later, Napoleon's exhausted troops gave way, and the British and Prussian forces chased them from the field.
Napoleon Bonaparte: summary
Banished to St. Helena
Without doubt, Napoleon was a military genius and a brilliant administrator. Yet all his victories and other achievements must be measured against the millions of lives that were lost in his wars. The French writer Alexis de Tocqueville summed up Napoleon's character by saying, "He was as great as a man can be without virtue." Napoleon's defeat opened the door for the freed European countries to establish a new order.
Mentions Josephine when he dies
Congress of Vienna: Klemens von Metternich
distrusted the democratic ideals of the French Revolution. Like most other European aristocrats, he felt that Napoleon's behavior had been a natural outcome of experiments with democracy. Metternich wanted to keep things as they were and remarked, "The first and greatest concern for the immense majority of every nation is the stability of laws—never their change.
Congress of Vienna: Klemens von Metternich: goals
Prevent future aggression against France
Balance of power
Congress of Vienna: balance of power
n. a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others.
Congress of Vienna: the containment of France
The former Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic were united to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
A group of 39 German states were loosely joined as the newly created German Confederation, dominated by Austria.
Switzerland was recognized as an independent nation.
The Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy was strengthened by the addition of Genoa.
Congress of Vienna: balance of power in Europe
Although the leaders of Europe wanted to weaken France, they did not want to leave it powerless. If they severely punished France, they might encourage the French to take revenge. If they broke up France, then another country might become so strong that it would threaten them all. Thus, the victorious powers did not exact a great price from the defeated nation. As a result, France remained a major but diminished European power. Also, no country in Europe could easily overpower another.
Congress of Vienna: legitimacy
n. the hereditary right of a monarch to rule.
Congress of Vienna: legitimacy restored
The great powers affirmed the principle of legitimacy—agreeing that as many as possible of the rulers whom Napoleon had driven from their thrones be restored to power. The ruling families of France, Spain, and several states in Italy and Central Europe regained their thrones. The participants in the Congress of Vienna believed that the return of the former monarchs would stabilize political relations among the nations.
Congress of Vienna: peace in Europe
None of the five great powers waged war on one another for nearly 40 years, when Britain and France fought Russia in the Crimean War.
Congress of Vienna: Holy Alliance
n. a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna: Concert of Europe
n. a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions.
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First and Second Industrial Revolutions
Industrial Revolution People
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