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Chapter 18: Anatomy of the Blood Vessels

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Blood Vessels
A series of connected, hollow tubes that begin and end in the heart.
Pulmonary circulation
The path of blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and back to the left atrium.
Systemic Circulation
Circulation that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the rest of the body and back to the right atrium.
Pulmonary
_____ circulation provides our blood with oxygen.
Arteries
_____ carry blood away from the heart.
Veins
_____ Carry blood toward the heart.
Arterioles
Blood vessels branch until they become smaller and smaller vessels known as _____.
Capillaries
These are the smallest and most numerous of the vessels.
Capillaries
_____ are connected to arterioles with venules.
Exchange vessels
Capillaries are also known as _____.
True
True or False: capillaries are the only place for substances to exit or enter from the cells.
Capillary
exchange of oxygen happens at the _____ level.
Venules
Small _____ converge to form larger veins.
Right atrium
veins eventually dump blood into the _____ of the heart.
3
Blood vessels (with the exception of capillaries) consist of (#) levels.
Tunica Intima
The innermost level of a blood vessel.
Endothelial lining
The tunica intima has a _____ which gives it a smooth shiny surface and allows blood to flow freely.
Tunica Intima
This blood vessel layer has an endothelial lining which prevents blood clots.
Tunica Media
This is the middle layer of blood vessels.
False (greater in the aortas)
True or False: The tunica media is greater in the common carotids.
Elastic tissue and smooth muscle
The tunica media is composed of __________.
Tunica adventitia
This is the outermost, supportive layer of the blood vessels.
Arteriole
The blood vessel with the most smooth muscle (relative to size) is the _____.
Connective
The tunica adventitia is composed of tough _____ tissue.
True
True or False: veins are much more susceptible to clot formation as there is less pressure, blood moves slower and sits still longer.
Conductance
Arteries are also called _____ vessels, they conduct blood from larger arteries to arterioles.
Resistance
Arterioles are called _____ vessels, they constrict and dilate to alter blood flow.
Exchange
Capillaries are called _____ vessels, they allow for the exchange of nutrients and waste.
Capacitance
Veins and venules are called _____ vessels, they store blood.
Backflow
Veins contain 1 way valves which prevent the _____ of blood.
70
_____% of blood volume is found in venous circulation.
Aorta
The _____ is the major artery of systemic circulation
Left ventricle
The aorta originates from the _____ of the heart.
Ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta
List the 5 branches of the aorta.
Coronary arteries
Branching off the ascending aorta are the _____ which supply the myocardium of the heart.
Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid and left subclavian artery
Branching off the aortic arch are the ___________.
Right common carotid and right subclavian arteries
The ________ branch off the brachiocephalic artery.
Thoracic
The posterior intercostals arteries branch off of the _____ aorta.
Celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, renal arteries, gonadal arteries and lumbar arteries
List the arteries which branch off the abdominal aorta.
L4
The aorta ends at the level of _____ by branching into a right and left common iliac artery.
Deep or superficial
Veins can be classified as either ______ or _____.
True
True or False: most deep veins run parallel to arteries and have the same name.
Vena Cavae
These return deoxygenated blood to the right atrium.
Superior vena cava
This drains blood from the head and upper extremity.
Inferior vena cava
This drains blood from the lower body.
Brachiocephalic veins and azygos veins.
Which veins drain directly into the SVC?
Internal jugular and subclavian veins
These two vessels join to form the brachiocephalics.
Azygos
This vein takes deoxygenated blood from the thorax and dumps it into the SVC.
IVC (inferior vena cava)
The right and left common iliac veins join together to form the _____.
Renal and hepatic veins
These veins drain into the IVC.
Superficial
_____ veins are located right under the skin and have no arteries of the same name with which they travel.
Cephalic
This vein drains the lateral arm and empties into the axillary vein.
Basilic
This vein drains the medial arm and joins with the brachial vein to form the axillary vein.
Medial Cubital
This vein is a V-shaped structure which connects the cephalic and basilica veins in the cubital fossa.
Great Saphenous
This vein is the longest in the body - starts on the medial foot and merges with the femoral vein.
Great Saphenous
This vein may be used to replace damaged veins in other parts of the body.
True
True or False: The brain receives a dual blood supply
Vertebral arteries and internal carotid arteries
Which vessels provide the blood supply to the brain?
True
True or False: The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen.
External carotid
_____ arteries supply the neck, face and scalp with blood.
Internal Carotid
The _____ arteries supply the majority of the blood to the brain.
Carotid Sinus
A dilated region at the origin of the internal carotid that functions as a baroreceptor.
Baroreceptors
These monitor and stretch based on blood pressure.
Subclavian
The vertebral arteries branch from the _____ artery.
Basilar
The vertebral arteries join together on the brain stem to form the _____ artery.
Stroke
Damage to the vertebral arteries could cause dissection and _____.
Circle of Willis
A circular arrangement of arteries that give off branches that supply oxygen to the brain.
Internal carotid artery and basilar artery
Which two arteries provide branches to form the circle of willis?
Occlusion
_____ of the blood supply to the brain may result in dizziness, confusion and/or stroke.
Superficial
External jugular veins are (deep/superficial) to the internal jugular veins.
External jugular veins
These drain posteriorly to the head and neck.
Subclavian
External jugular veins empty into the _____ veins.
Internal jugular veins
_____ drain the head, neck and face.
Subclavian
Internal jugular veins join with the _____ to form brachiocephalic veins.
Venus Sinus
Internal jugular veins drain most blood from the _____ of the brain.
Portal System
The end producs of digestion need to be transported to the liver so they are taken from the stomach, large and small intestines to the liver by the ______.
Portal vein, hepatic veins and hepatic artery
The portal system is made up of three groups of vessels; the ____ the _____ and the _____.
Nutrients
The portal vein transports _____ .
Superior mesenteric and splenic veins
Which two vessels make up the portal vein?
deoxygenated blood
Hepatic veins transport _____.
Liver
The hepatic artery brings oxygenated blood to the _____.
Portal Vein
This vein brings blood rich in digestive end products from the digestive organs to the liver.
Liver
The _____ is essential in the metabolism of fats, carbs, proteins; detoxification; storage etc.
Hepatic Artery
This is a branch of the celiac trunk which supplies oxygen to the liver.
Hepatic Veins
These drain deoxygenated blood from the liver and empty into the IVC .
True
True or False: The developing fetus relies on maternal blood supply to provide oxygen and nutrients as well as eliminate waste products.
Umbilical cord
The exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste between mother and fetus happens via the _____.
Vein / arteries
The umbilical cord is composed of one large umbilical _____ and two smaller umbilical _____.
False (blood should not mix)
True or False: Blood as well as oxygen, nutrients and waste is passed between mother and child in fetal circulation.
Veins / Arteries
In fetal circulation, _____ carry oxygenated blood while _____ carry deoxygenated blood.
Placenta
The umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the _____ to the fetus.
Umbilical Arteries
These originate from the right and left common iliac arteries of the fetus.
Ductus Venosus
This fetal vessel allows oxygenated blood to be carried toward the right atrium of the fetal heart.
True
True or False: The ductus venosus directs most of the blood away from the fetal liver and sends it toward the fetal heart.
Inferior Vena cava
The ductus venosus connects the umbilical vein to the _____.
Foramen Ovale
Valve-like opening with Interatrial septum which allows blood to flow from right to left atrium thereby bypassing the fetal lungs.
True
True or False: fetal lungs are not inflated so they do not need oxygen and do not create oxygenated blood.
Ductus arteriosus
This connection allows blood to flow from the pulmonary artery into the aorta thereby bypassing the fetal lungs.
Patent DA
Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is known as _____.
Ductus Arteriosus
This vessel of fetal circulation provides a second chance for oxygenated blood to go from the right ventricle to the aorta.
True
True or False: certain drugs can cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
Internal Iliacs
The umbilical arteries branch off the _____.
Pulse
A pressure wave traveling through the arteries with each beat of the heart due to an alternating expansion and recoiling of arteries.
Heart rate, regularity of heart beat, strength of heart beat, and occlusion or blockage of artery
List the 4 pieces of information that taking a pulse can provide you with.