Psychology Exam 1

What assumptions to do psychologists have?
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Like all scientists, psychologists are guided by the basic scientific assumption that events are lawful. When this scientific assumption is applied to psychology, it means that psychologists assume that behavior and mental processes follow consistent patterns. Psychologists are also guided by the assumption that events are explainable. Thus, psychologists assume that behavior and mental processes have a cause or causes that can be understood through careful, systematic study.
At that time, the French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650) proposed a doctrine called interactive dualism—the idea that mind and body were separate entities that interact to produce sensations, emotions, and other conscious experiences. Today, psychologists continue to explore the relationship between mental activity and the brain.
A major turning point in psychology occurred in 1874, when Wundt outlined the connections between physiology and psychology in his landmark text, Principles of Physiological Psychology (Diamond, 2001). He argued that psychology should be established as a separate scientific discipline that would use experimental methods to study mental processes.
What happened in 1879?Wundt achieved that goal in 1879, when he established the first psychology research laboratory at the University of Leipzig. Wundt's experiments were simple by today's standards but groundbreaking for the time.Who is Edward Bradford Titchener?One of Wundt's most devoted students. Titchener shared many of Wundt's ideas about the nature of psychology. Eventually, however, Titchener developed his own approach, which he called structuralism. Structuralism became the first major school of thought in psychology. Structuralism held that even our most complex conscious experiences could be broken down into elemental structures, or component parts, of sensations and feelings.What is structuralism?Structuralism held that even our most complex conscious experiences could be broken down into elemental structures, or component parts, of sensations and feelings.What is introspection?the examination or observation of one's own mental and emotional processes. writing down or talking about their feelings.Who is William James?James's ideas became the basis for a new school of psychology called functionalism. Opposed Wundt and Titchener's approach and shaped school of functionalismWhat is functionalism?Functionalism stressed the importance of how behavior functions to allow people and animals to adapt to their environments. Unlike structuralists, functionalists did not limit their methods to introspection. They expanded the scope of psychological research to include direct observation of living creatures in natural settings. They also examined how psychology could be applied to areas like education, child rearing, and the work environment.Who is G. Stanley Hall?Hall founded the first psychology research laboratory in the United States at Johns Hopkins University in 1883. Most important, in 1892, Hall founded the American Psychological Association and was elected its first president (Anderson, 2012).What is the APA?American Psychological Association is the world's largest professional organization of psychologists, with approximately 115,000 members.Who is Mary Whitton?In 1890, Mary Whiton Calkins was assigned the task of teaching experimental psychology at a new women's college—Wellesley College. She conducted research in dreams, memory, and personality. In 1891, she established a psychology laboratory at Wellesley College. At the turn of the twentieth century, she wrote a well-received textbook titled Introduction to Psychology. In 1905, Calkins was elected president of the American Psychological Association—the first woman, but not the last, to hold that position.Who is Margaret Floy Washburn?the first American woman to earn an official Ph.D. in psychology was Margaret Floy Washburn, Edward Titchener's first doctoral student at Cornell University. Washburn strongly advocated the scientific study of the mental processes of different animal species. In 1908, she published an influential text titled The Animal Mind. Her book summarized research on sensation, perception, learning, and other "inner experiences" of different animal species.Who is Francis C. Sumner?Sumner was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. in psychology, awarded by Clark University in 1920.Who is Sigmund Feud?In Vienna, Austria, a physician named Sigmund Freud was developing an intriguing theory of personality based on uncovering causes of behavior that were unconscious or hidden from the person's conscious awareness. Freud himself was a neurologist, not a psychologist.What is psychoanalysis?Freud's school of thought, called psychoanalysis, emphasized the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality. Past experiences, especially childhood experiences, were thought to be critical in the formation of adult personality and behavior.What did Freud believe?Freud believed that human behavior was motivated by unconscious conflicts that were almost always sexual or aggressive in nature. (Behavior is influenced by unconscious desires.Ivan Pavlovdiscovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bellUlric Neisserfather of cognitive psychologyBiological PerspectiveThe biological perspective emphasizes studying the physical bases of human and animal behavior, including the nervous system, endocrine system, immune system, and genetics.What are the term steps of the scientific method?1. Formulate a hypothesis 2. Design the study and collect data 3. Analyze the data and draw conclusions 4. Report the findingsWho is John. B Watson?an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism. Watson promoted a change in psychology through his address Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it. Posited that the goal of the behaviorists was to discover the fundamental principles of learning—how behavior is acquired and modified in response to environmental influencesWhat is Behaviorism?The course of psychology changed dramatically in the early 1900s, when another approach, called behaviorism, emerged as a dominating force. Behaviorism rejected the emphasis on consciousness promoted by structuralism and functionalism. It also flatly rejected Freudian notions about unconscious influences, claiming that such ideas were unscientific and impossible to test. Instead, behaviorism contended that psychology should focus its scientific investigations strictly on overt behavior—observable behaviors that could be objectively measured and verified. Behaviorism, on the contrary, holds that the subject matter of human psychology is the behavior of the human being. Behaviorism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept. The behaviorist, who has been trained always as an experimentalist, holds, further, that belief in the existence of consciousness goes back to the ancient days of superstition and magic.Who is B.F. Skinner?the famous American psychologist B.F. Skinner. Like Watson, Skinner believed that psychology should restrict itself to studying outwardly observable behaviors that could be measured and verified. In compelling experimental demonstrations, Skinner systematically used reinforcement or punishment to shape the behavior of rats and pigeons.Max WartheimerGestalt viewpoint (the whole is greater than the some of its parts)Who is Carl Rogers?Carl Rogers-(Humanistic View) Person -Centered Theory: He was one of the founders of the Human potential movement, which emphasizes personal growth through sensitivity training, encounter groups, and other exercises intended to help people get in touch with their true selves. Rogers emphasized self-determination, free will, and the importance of choice in human behaviorWhat is humanistic psychology?School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes each person's unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction.1. Formulate the hypothesisForm a hypothesis: a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables; a testable prediction or questionWho is Abraham Maslow?was another advocate of humanistic psychology. Maslow developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth. Like psychoanalysis, humanistic psychology included not only influential theories of personality but also a form of psychotherapy.What is Contemporary psychology?As psychology has developed as a scientific discipline, the topics it investigates have become progressively more diverse.What is Neuroscience?refers to the study of the nervous system, especially the brain. Sophisticated brain-scanning techniques allow neuroscientists to study the structure and activity of the intact, living brain in increasing detail.Rene DescartesAgreed with dualism the body is like a well oiled machine while the mind or soul is nonmaterial and it does not follow the laws of nature (ideas and emotions are innate and in-born)John LockeEmpiricism: knowledge comes from sensory experience (the mind is a blank slate)Psycho-dynamic Perspectivethe importance of unconscious influences, early life experiences, and interpersonal relationships in explaining the underlying dynamics of behavior or in treating people with psychological problems. Influenced by Freud.Behavioral Perspective?Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner's contention that psychology should focus on observable behaviors and the fundamental laws of learning is evident today in the behavioral perspective. Many psychologists who work in the area of mental health also emphasize the behavioral perspective in explaining and treating psychological disorders. We are taught behaviors.Humanistic Perspective?The influence of the work of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow continues to be seen among contemporary psychologists who take the humanistic perspective. The humanistic perspective focuses on the motivation of people to grow psychologically, the influence of interpersonal relationships on a person's self-concept, and the importance of choice and self-direction in striving to reach one's potential. Like the psychodynamic perspective, the humanistic perspective is most often emphasized among psychologists working in the mental health field.Positive Psychology Perspective?The humanistic perspective's emphasis on psychological growth and human potential contributed to the recent emergence of a new perspective. Positive psychology is a field of psychological research and theory focusing on the study of positive emotions and psychological states, positive individual traits, and the social institutions that foster those qualities in individuals and communities. seeks to counterbalance psychology's traditional emphasis on psychological problems and disorders. Positive psychology is also focused on developing therapeutic techniques that increase personal well-being rather than just alleviating the troubling symptoms of psychological disordersCognitive PerspectiveCognitive psychology focused once again on the important role of mental processes in how people process and remember information, develop language, solve problems, and think. The development of the first computers in the 1950s contributed to the cognitive revolution. Computers gave psychologists a new model for conceptualizing human mental processes—human thinking, memory, and perception could be understood in terms of an information-processing model.Cross Cultural Perspective?More recently, psychologists have taken a closer look at how cultural factors influence patterns of behavior—the essence of the cross-cultural perspectiveWhat is Culture?Culture refers to the attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to anotherWhat is ethnocentrism?belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other culturesWhat is Individualistic cultures?emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group. In individualistic societies, the self is seen as independent, autonomous, and distinctive. Personal identity is defined by individual achievements, abilities, and accomplishments.What is collectivistic cultures?emphasize the needs and goals of the group over those of the individual. Social behavior is more heavily influenced by cultural norms and social context than by individual preferences and attitudesEvolutionary Perspective?refers to the application of the principles of evolution to explain psychological processes and phenomena. The evolutionary perspective reflects a renewed interest in the work of English naturalist Charles Darwin. Psychologists who take the evolutionary perspective assume that psychological processes are also subject to the principle of natural selection. That is, psychological processes that helped individuals adapt to their environments also helped them survive, reproduce, and pass those abilities on to their offspringWhat is the theory of evolution?The theory of evolution proposes that the individual members of a species compete for survival. Because of inherited differences, some members of a species are better adapted to their environment than are others. Organisms that inherit characteristics that increase their chances of survival in their particular habitat are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on their characteristics to their offspring. But individuals that inherit less useful characteristics are less likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on their characteristics. This process reflects the principle of natural selection: The most adaptive characteristics are "selected" and perpetuated in the next generation.What is applied psychology?Applying the findings of basic psychology to diverse areas; examples include sports psychology, media psychology, forensic psychology, rehabilitation psychology, and military psychology.what is Biological psychology?Exploring relationships between psychological processes and the body's physical systems; neuroscience refers specifically to the study of the brain and the rest of the nervous system.What is clinical psychology?Focusing on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of psychological disorders.what is cognitive psychology?Researching mental processes, including reasoning and thinking, problem solving, memory, perception, mental imagery, and language.What is counseling psychology?Helping people adjust, adapt, and cope with personal and interpersonal challenges; improving well-being, alleviating distress and maladjustment, and resolving crises.What is developmental psychology?Studying physical, social, and psychological changes that occur at different ages and stages of the lifespan.What is educational psychology?Applying psychological principles and theories to methods of learning.what is experimental psychology?Studying basic psychological processes, including sensation and perception, and principles of learning, emotion, and motivation.What is health psychology?Researching psychological factors in the development, prevention, and treatment of illness; stress and coping; promoting health-enhancing behaviors.What is industrial/organizational psychology?Understanding the relationship between people and work.What is personality psychology?Explaining the nature of human personality, including the uniqueness of each person, traits, and individual differences.What is school psychology?Applying psychological principles and findings in primary and secondary schools.What is social psychology?Understanding how an individual's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are affected by social environments and the presence of other people.left side of brain controlsAnalytical thinking language skillsRight side of brain controlsThe right side controls attention, memory, reasoning, and problem solving.What is the scientific method?The scientific method refers to a set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawing conclusions.2. Design the study and collect the dataUse descriptive or experimental methodologies3.Analyze the data and draw conclusionsUse statistics to analyze, summarize, and draw conclusions about the data they have collected.4. Report the findingsThe rationale for testing the hypothesis • Who participated in the study and how they were selected • How variables were operationally defined • What procedures or methods were used • How the data were analyzed • What the results seem to suggestWhat is emperical evidence?Verifiable evidence based on objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentationWhat is a hypothesis?A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables; a testable prediction or questionWhat is a variable?A factor that can vary, or change, in ways that can be observed, measured, and verifiedWhat is operational definition?A precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured.What is statistics?A branch of mathematics used by researchers to organize, summarize, and interpret dataWhat is statistically significant?A mathematical indication that research results are not very likely to have occurred by chanceWhat is Meta-analysis?A statistical technique that involves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trendsWhat is replicate?To repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase confidence in the validity of the original findingsWhat is theory?A theory, or model, is a tentative explanation that tries to account for diverse findings on the same topic.What is pseudoscience?is a theory, method, or practice that promotes claims in ways that appear to be scientific and plausible even though supporting empirical evidence is lacking or nonexistentWhat are the warning signs of pseudoscience?1. Testimonials rather than scientific evidence 2. "Sciencey" presentation without scientific substance 3. Combining established scientific knowledge with unfounded claims 4. Irrefutable or non falsifiable claims 5. Confirmation bias 6. Shifting the burden of proof 7. Multiple outsWhat is descriptive research?Descriptive research is used to systematically observe and describe behavior. Using descriptive research designs, researchers can answer important questions, such as when certain behaviors take place, how often they occur, and whether they are related to other factors, such as a person's age, ethnic group, or educational level. Descriptive research can provide a wealth of information about behavior, especially behaviors that would be difficult or impossible to study experimentally.What is a longitudinal design?research strategy in which a group of variables is studied in the same group of participants over timeWhat is cross sectional design?studies a variable or set of variables among a group of participants at a single point in time.What is naturalistic observation?When psychologists systematically observe and record behaviors as they occur in their natural settings, they are using the descriptive method called naturalistic observation. Usually, researchers engaged in naturalistic observation try to avoid being detected by their subjects, whether people or nonhuman animals. The basic goal of naturalistic observation is to detect the behavior patterns that exist naturally—patterns that might not be apparent in a laboratory or if the subjects knew they were being watched.What are Case Studies?A case study is an intensive, in-depth investigation of an individual, a family, or some other social unit. Case studies involve compiling a great deal of information from numerous sources to construct a detailed picture of the person.What is a survey?A questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group.What is a sample?A selected segment of the population used to represent the group that is being studiedWhat is a representative sample?A selected segment that very closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristicsWhat is random selection?Process in which subjects are selected randomly from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the studyWhat is a correlational study?Correlational studies show how strongly two factors are related. A correlational study examines how strongly two variables are related to, or associated with, each other. Correlations can be used to analyze the data gathered by any type of descriptive method, and are also used to analyze the results of experiments.What is correlational coefficient?A correlation coefficient is a numerical indicator of the strength of the relationship between two factors. A correlation coefficient always falls in the range from -1.00 to +1.00. The correlation coefficient has two parts—the number and the sign. The number indicates the strength of the relationship, and the sign indicates the direction of the relationship between the two variables. More specifically, the closer a correlation coefficient is to 1.00, whether it is positive or negative, the stronger the correlation or association is between the two factors. Hence, a correlation coefficient of +.90 or -.90 represents a very strong association, meaning that the two factors almost always occur together. A correlation coefficient of +.10 or -.10 represents a very weak correlation.What is a positive correlation?a finding that two factors vary systematically in the same direction, increasing or decreasing togetherWhat is a negative correlation?a finding that two factors vary systematically in opposite directions, one increasing as the other one decreasesWhat does correlation does not equal causation mean?Even if two factors are very strongly correlated, correlation does not necessarily indicate causality. A correlation tells you only that two factors seem to be related or that they co-vary in a systematic way. Although two factors may be very strongly correlated, correlational studies cannot be used to demonstrate a true cause-and-effect relationshipWhat is experimental research?The experimental method is used to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables. n contrast to descriptive research and correlational studies, experimental research is used to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between changes in one variable and the effect that is produced on another variable.What is an independent variable?variable that is manipulatedWhat is a dependent variable?variable that is measured. the result form manipulating independent variable.What is a confounding variable?a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experimentWhat is an experimental group?Group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variablewhat is random assignment?All participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the experimental groups or conditions. Random assignment helps ensure that any potential differences among the participants are spread out evenly across all experimental conditions.What is a single blind study?Researchers, but not the subjects, are aware of critical information.What is a double blind study?both subjects and the experimenter do not know who has been assigned to which group in order to prevent biasWhat are demand characteristics?cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expectedWho develops guidelines for psychological studies?Psychological research conducted in the United States is subject to ethical guidelines developed by the American Psychological Association (APA).What is informed consent and voluntary participation?Psychologist must inform the participants of the purpose of the research and any potential risks, discomfort, or unpleasant emotional experiences. Participants are free to decline to participate or to withdraw from the research at any time.What is using students as participants?When research participation is a course requirement or an opportunity for extra credit, the student must be given the choice of an alternative activity to fulfill the course requirement or earn extra credit.What is the use of deception?Psychologists can use deceptive techniques as part of the study only when two conditions have been met: (1) when it is not feasible to use alternatives that do not involve deception and (2) when the potential findings justify the use of deception because of their scientific, educational, or applied value.What is confidentiality of information?In their writing, lectures, or other public forums, psychologists may not disclose personally identifiable information about research participants.What is debriefing?All participants must be provided with the opportunity to obtain information about the nature, results, and conclusions of the research. Psychologists are also obligated to debrief the participants and to correct any misconceptions that participants may have had about the research.biological psychologya branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behaviorWhat is one important area of study within biological psychology?NeuroscienceWhat is neuroscience?the scientific study of the brain and the nervous systemWhat is neuroscience also called?Biopsychology or PsychobiologyWhat are neurons?cells that are highly specialized to receive and transmit information from one part of the body to anotherWhat are the three types of neurons?sensory neurons, motor neurons, interneuronsWhat is a sensory neuron?also called afferent neurons, convey information about the environment, such as light or sound, from specialized receptor cells in the sense organs to the brain. Sensory neurons also carry information from the skin and internal organs to the brain.What are motor neurons?also called efferent neurons, communicate information to the muscles and glands of the body. Simply blinking your eyes activates thousands of motor neuronsWhat are interneurons?communicate information between neurons. By far, most of the neurons in the human nervous system are interneurons. Many interneurons connect to other interneurons.What are the three basic parts of a neuron?cell body, dendrites, axonWhat is a cell body?also called the soma, contains structures that manufacture proteins and process nutrients, providing the energy the neuron needs to function. The cell body also contains the nucleus, which in turn contains the cell's genetic material—twisted strands of DNA called chromosomes.What is a dendrite?Short branching fibers called dendrites extend from the cell bodies of most neurons. Dendrites receive messages from other neurons or specialized cells.What is an axon?is a single elongated tube that extends from the cell body in most, though not all, neurons. Axons carry information from the neuron to other cells in the body, including other neurons, glands, and musclesWhat are mirror neurons?a distinct type of motor neuron that becomes activated both when individuals perform a motor act and when they observe the same motor act done by another individualWhat are glial cells?are abundant in the human brain. Glia is Greek for "glue," and although they don't actually glue neurons together, glia do provide structural support for neurons throughout the nervous system.What forms the myelin sheath?oligodendrocytes in the brain and Schwann cells in the rest of the nervous systemWhat is the myelin sheath?a white fatty covering that is wrapped around the axons of some, but not all, neurons. myelin helps insulate one axon from the axons of other neuronsWhat is multiple sclerosis?is a disease that involves the degeneration of patches of the myelin sheath. This degeneration causes the transmission of neural messages to be slowed or interrupted, resulting in disturbances in sensation and movement. Muscle weakness, loss of coordination, and blurred vision are among the more common symptoms of multiple sclerosis.Why is the myelin sheath important?Neurons whose axons are wrapped in myelin communicate their messages up to 50 times faster than do unmyelinated neuronsWhat is the general way messages are sent?messages are gathered by the dendrites and cell body and then transmitted along the axon in the form of a brief electrical impulse called an action potentialWhat does the axon membrane do?Think of the axon membrane as a gatekeeper that carefully controls the balance of positive and negative ions on the interior and exterior of the axon. As the gatekeeper, the axon membrane opens and closes ion channels that allow ions to flow into and out of the axon.What is a neurons stimulus threshold?each neuron requires a minimum level of stimulation from other neurons or sensory receptors to activate it. This minimum level of stimulation is called the neuron's stimulus thresholdWhat is a neuron called while it is waiting to be stimulized?While waiting for sufficient stimulation to activate it, the neuron is said to be polarized. This means that there is a difference in the electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon. More specifically, there is a greater concentration of negative ions inside the neuron. Thus, the axon's interior is more negatively charged than is the exterior fluid surrounding the axonWhat is the negative charge in a polarized neuron?-70 millivolts (thousandths of a volt)What is the -70millivolts referred as?neuron's resting potentialWhat is happening in the polarized atom?there are different concentrations of two particular ions: sodium and potassiumWhat happens when the neuron is in resting potential?the fluid surrounding the axon contains a larger concentration of sodium ions than does the fluid within the axon. The fluid within the axon contains a larger concentration of potassium ions than is found in the fluid outside the axon.What is resting potential?the state in which a neuron is prepared to activate and communicate its message if it receives sufficient stimulationWhat is the all or none law?once a nerve impulse is initiated, it will travel the length of the neuronWhere does communication between 2 neurons take place?SynapseWhat is the synapse?the junction between two adjoining neurons. The point of communication between two neuronsWhat is a message-sending neuron referred to?presynaptic neuronWhat is a message-receiving neuron called?postsynaptic neuronWhat is the synaptic gap?The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuronWhat is the axon terminal?This is one of the numerous branched ending of an axon. Also known as a terminal fibril.What is in the axon terminal?Floating in the interior fluid of the axon terminals are tiny sacs called synaptic vesiclesWhat are synaptic vesicles?The synaptic vesicles hold special chemical messengers manufactured by the neuron, called neurotransmitters.What is a neurotransmitter?a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.What is synaptic transmission?The entire process of transmitting information at the synapseWhat is reuptake?the absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted. Reuptake also occurs with many of the neurotransmitters that failed to attach to a receptor and were left floating in the synaptic gap.What is an excitatory message?increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will activate and generate an action potentialWhat is a inhibitory message?An inhibitory message decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will activate.What is Acetylcholine?Learning, memory Muscle contractionsWhat is dopamine?Movement Thought processes Rewarding sensationsWhat is serotonin?Emotional states Sleep Sensory perceptionWhat is norepinephrine?Physical arousal Learning, memory Regulation of sleepWhat is glutamate?Excitatory messagesWhat is GABA?inhibitory neurotransmitterWhat is endorphins?Pain perception Positive emotionsHow do drugs affect mood or behaviour?by affecting the normal functioning of neurotransmitters in the synapses. Some drugs increase or decrease the amounts of neurotransmitters released by neurons. Drugs may also affect the length of time the neurotransmitters remain in the synaptic gap, either increasing or decreasing the amount available to the postsynaptic receptor. by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitters by the sending neuronWhat is an agonist?is a drug or other chemical that binds to a receptor and facilitates synaptic transmission. agonist drugs are chemically similar to a specific neurotransmitter and produce the same effect.What is an antagonist?blocking the effect of neurotransmitters. A drug may fit into receptor sites and prevent neurotransmitters from acting.What is the central nervous system?consists of the brain and spinal cord. central to all behavior and mental processesWhat is the CNS protected by?meninges and cerebrospinal fluid, which surrounds the spinal cord and fills ventricles in the brain.What are neural stem cells?line the inner surface of the ventricles that generate neurons in the developing brain.What do sensory receptors do?send messages along sensory nerves and then up to the brainWhat s the brain protected by?Skull, Cerebrospinal fluid also fills four hollow cavities in the brain, called ventriclesWhat is the spinal cord protected by?spinal columnWhat is the meninges?These are three connective tissue membranes covering and protecting the CNS structures.What is in a ventricle?The inner surfaces of the ventricles are lined with neural stem cells, specialized cells that generate neurons in the developing brainWhat does the spinal cord handle?both incoming and outgoing messagesWhat are sensory receptors?send messages along sensory nerves to the spinal cord, then up to the brainHow does the brain activate muscles?To activate muscles, the brain sends signals down the spinal cord that are relayed out along motor nerves to the muscles.How are spinal reflexes controlled?spinal reflexes are simple automatic behaviors that occur without any brain involvement. For example, the withdrawal reflex occurs when you touch a painful stimulus, such as something hot or sharp.Why are spinal reflexes important?Spinal reflexes are also important as indicators that the neural pathways in your spinal cord are working correctly.What is the nervous system?Consists of the brain, spinal cord & nerves & it serves as the body's CONTROL SYSTEM. Once a threat is detected the nervous system activates appropriate muscles or glands to respond.What is the nervous system divided into?the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous systemWhat is the most important thing in the CNS?The NeuronHow does communication work in the peripheral system?communication occurs along nerves, which are made up of large bundles of neuron axonsWhat is the peripheral system?is the other major division of your nervous system. The peripheral nervous system comprises all the nerves outside the central nervous system that extend to the outermost borders of your body, including your skinWhat is the peripheral system made up of?somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous systemWhat is the somatic nervous system?The somatic nervous system communicates sensory information received by sensory receptors along sensory nerves to the central nervous system. And, it carries messages from the central nervous system along motor nerves to perform voluntary muscle movements.What is the autonomic nervous system?The other subdivision of the peripheral nervous system is the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary functions, such as heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, and digestion. These processes occur with little or no conscious involvement.What is the autonomic system made up of?the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These two systems control many of the same organs in your body but cause them to respond in opposite wayWhat is the parasympathetic nervous system?What is the sympathetic nervous system?The sympathetic nervous system is the body's emergency system, rapidly activating bodily systems to meet threats or emergencies.How do the sympathetic and parasympathetic act together?keeping the nervous system in balance. Each division handles different functions, yet the whole nervous system works in unison so that both automatic and voluntary behaviors are carried out smoothly.What is the endocrine system?is made up of glands that are located throughout the body. Like the nervous system, the endocrine system uses chemical messengers to transmit information from one part of the body to another. Although the endocrine system is not part of the nervous system, it interacts with the nervous system in important ways.What do endocrine glands do?communicate information from one part of the body to another by secreting messenger chemicals called hormones into the bloodstream. The hormones circulate throughout the bloodstream until they reach specific hormone receptors on target organs or tissueWhat do hormones do?regulate physical processes and influence behavior. For example, metabolism, growth rate, digestion, blood pressure, and sexual development, and reproduction are all regulated by the endocrine hormones. Hormones are also involved in emotional responses and stress. hormones can promote or inhibit the generation of nerve impulsesWhy is the endocrine system slower than the nervous system?Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the bloodstream, and it takes a few seconds for the hormones to be delivered to their target organs.What is the hypothalamus?directly regulates the release of hormones by the pituitary gland, a pea-sized gland just under the brain. The pituitary's hormones, in turn, regulate the production of other hormones by many of the glands in the endocrine system.What is the pituitary gland?It is the master gland. It produces many hormones that regulate homeostasis e.g ADH, FSHWhat is the adrenal gland?produce hormones that are involved in the human stress response and play a key role in the fight-or-flight response, described earlier. When activated, the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the adrenal glands, which produce epinephrine and norepinephrine.What are gonads?testes and ovaries. In women, the ovaries secrete the hormones estrogen and progesterone. In men, the testes secrete male sex hormones called androgens, the most important of which is testosterone. Testosterone is also secreted by the adrenal glands in both males and females. In general, the sex hormones influence sexual development, sexual behavior, and reproduction. They also affect brain structure and functionExplain Brain imaging studies usually involve a small number of participants limitation.Because of the limited availability and the high cost of the technology, many brain imaging studies have fewer than a few dozen participants. With any research involving a small number of participants, caution must be exercised in generalizing results to a wider populationWhat is an MRI?does not involve invasive procedures such as injections of radioactive substances. While a person lies in a magnetic tube, her brain is bombarded with powerful but harmless magnetic fields. A computer analyzes the electromagnetic signals generated by brain-tissue molecules in response to the magnetic fields. The result is a series of digital images, each a detailed "slice" of the brain's structures. MRI scans are also routinely used to produce detailed images of other body parts, such as joints, spine, or organs.Explain Brain imaging studies tend to focus on simple aspects of behavior limitation.Even seemingly simple tasks involve the smooth coordination of multiple brain regions. As Jerome Kagan (2008) observes, "An event as simple as the unexpected sound of a whistle activates 24 different brain areas." Thus, it's naïve to think that complex psychological or behavioral functions can be mapped to a single brain centerWhat is the dMRI (Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Machine)?is a new scanning method that tracks the movement of water molecules in the brain along the myelinated axons connecting one part of the brain to another. This technique allows neuroscientists to produce detailed three-dimensional images of the brain's neural pathways (Chi, 2014; Glasser & others, 2016; Van Essen & Glasser, 2016). The most commonly used methods are diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a more advanced method, diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI).What are the limitations of brain scanning?1. Brain imaging studies usually involve a small number of participants. 2. Brain imaging studies tend to focus on simple aspects of behavior. 3. Brain imaging may not increase understanding of a psychological process. 4. Brain imaging is not necessarily a more "scientific" explanation.Explain Brain imaging may not increase understanding of a psychological process limitationFor example, although brain imaging might point to a particular brain structure as being involved in, say, fear or romantic love, knowing this may not advance our understanding of the psychological experience of fear or romantic loveExplain Brain imaging is not necessarily a more "scientific" explanation limitationAs psychologist Paul Bloom (2006) points out, "Functional MRI seems more like 'real' science than many of the other things that psychologists are up to. It has all the trappings of work with great laboratory credibility: big, expensive, and potentially dangerous machines, hospitals and medical centers, and a lot of people in white coats." To be truly useful, brain imaging of a particular behavior must be interpreted within the context of existing psychological knowledge about the behaviorWhat is a PET scan?is based on the fact that increased activity in a particular brain region is associated with increased blood flow and energy consumption in that region. A small amount of a relatively harmless radioactive substance is injected into the person's bloodstream, and the PET scanner tracks how much of the radioactive substance is used in thousands of different brain regions. A computer analyzes the data, producing color-coded images of the brain's activity.What s neuroplasticity or simply plasticity?The brain's ability to change function and structureWhat is an fMRI?Functional MRI (fMRI) combines the ability to produce a detailed image of the brain's structures with the capacity to track the brain's activity or functioning (K. Smith, 2012). While the person lies in the MRI scanner, a powerful computer tracks the electromagnetic signals that are generated by changes in the brain's metabolic activity, such as increased blood flow to a particular brain region. By measuring the ebb and flow of oxygenated blood in the brain, an fMRI produces a series of scans that show detailed moment-by-moment "movies" of the brain's changing activity in specific structures or regions.What is functional plasticity?which refers to the brain's ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas. Depending on the location and degree of brain damage, stroke or accident victims often need to relearn once-routine tasks such as speaking, walking, and reading. If the rehabilitation is successful, undamaged brain areas gradually assume the ability to process and execute the tasksWhat is structural plasticity?refers to the brain's ability to physically change its structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental stimulation. Even subtle changes in your environment or behavior can lead to structural changes in the brain. For example, just seven days after learning how to juggle, young adults showed a measurable increase in gray matter in brain regions involved in perceiving, remembering, and anticipating complex visual motionsWhat is neurogenesis?the formation of new neuronsWhat is the brianstem?The brainstem includes the hindbrain and midbrain, located at the base of the brain.What is the hindbrain?connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brainWhat is contralateral organization?right side of brain controls left side of body and vice versaWhat 3 structures make up the hindbrain?medulla, pons, cerebellumWhat is the medulla?The medulla is situated at the base of the brain directly above the spinal cord. The medulla plays a critical role in basic life-sustaining functions. It contains centers that control such vital autonomic functions as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. The medulla also controls a number of vital reflexes, including swallowing, coughing, vomiting, and sneezing. Because the medulla is involved in such critical life functions, damage to this brain region can rapidly prove fatal.What is the pons?swelling of tissue called the pons, which represents the uppermost level of the hindbrain. The word pons means "bridge," and the pons is a bridge of sorts: Information from various other brain regions located higher up in the brain is related to the cerebellum via the pons. The pons also contains centers that play an important role in regulating breathing.WWhat is the cerebellum?The cerebellum functions in the control of balance, muscle tone, and coordinated muscle movements. It is also involved in the learning of habitual or automatic movements and motor skills, such as typing, writing, or backhanding a tennis ball. Jerky, uncoordinated movements can result from damage to the cerebellum.What is the reticular formation?or the reticular activating system, which is composed of many groups of specialized neurons that project up to higher brain regions and down to the spinal cord. The reticular formation plays an important role in regulating attention and sleep.What is the midbrain?is an important relay station that contains centers involved in the processing of auditory and visual sensory information. The midbrain is also involved in processing visual information, including eye movements, helping you visually locate objects and track their movements.What is the substantia nigra?A midbrain area called the substantia nigra is involved in motor control and contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons. Substantia nigra means "dark substance," and as the name suggests, this area is darkly pigmented. The substantia nigra is part of a larger neural pathway that helps prepare other brain regions to initiate organized movements or actionsWhat is the forebrain?the cerebral cortex and the limbic system structures. the forebrain represents about 90 percent of the brain.What is the cerebral cortex?is divided into two cerebral hemispheres. The word cortex means "bark," and much like the bark of a tree, the cerebral cortex is the outer covering of the forebrainWhat is the corpus callosum?a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain. The corpus callosum serves as the primary communication link between the left and right cerebral hemispheres.What is the cerebral cortex made up of?It is composed mainly of glial cells and neuron cell bodies and axons, giving it a grayish appearance—which is why the cerebral cortex is sometimes described as being composed of gray matter. Extending inward from the cerebral cortex are white myelinated axons that are sometimes referred to as white matter. These myelinated axons connect the cerebral cortex to other brain regions. Numerous folds, grooves, and bulges characterize the human cerebral cortex.What are the 4 different lobes?temporal, occipital, parietal, and frontal lobesWhat is the temporal lobe?contains the primary auditory cortex, which receives auditory informationWhat is the occipital lobeincludes the primary visual cortex, where visual information is received.What is the parietal lobe?is involved in processing bodily, or somatosensory, information, including touch, temperature, pressure, and information from receptors in the muscles and joints. A band of tissue on the parietal lobe, called the somatosensory cortex, receives information from touch receptors in different parts of the body.What is the frontal lobe?is the largest lobe of the cerebral cortex, and damage to this area of the brain can affect many different functions. The frontal lobe is involved in planning, initiating, and executing voluntary movementsWhat is the primary motor cortex?The movements of different body parts are represented in a band of tissue on the frontal lobe called the primary motor cortex.What is the limbic system?a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions (fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring).What is the hippocampus?is a large structure embedded in the temporal lobe in each cerebral hemisphere The hippocampus plays an important role in your ability to form new memories of events and informationWhat is the thalamus?The thalamus processes and distributes motor information and sensory information (except for smell) going to and from the cerebral cortex.What is the hypothalamus?The hypothalamus is involved in so many different functions, it is sometimes referred to as "the brain within the brain." The hypothalamus regulates both divisions of the autonomic nervous system, increasing and decreasing such functions as heart rate and blood pressure. It also helps regulate a variety of behaviors related to survival, such as eating, drinking, frequency of sexual activity, fear, and aggression. One area of the hypothalamus, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), plays a key role in regulating daily sleep-wake cycles and other rhythms of the body. We'll take a closer look at the SCN in the chapter on consciousness.What is the amygdala?The amygdala is involved in a variety of emotional responses, including fear, anger, and disgust.What is cortical localization?The notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain; also called localization of function.What is aphasia?loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.What is laterization of function?The notion that one hemisphere exerts more control over or is more involved in the processing of a particular psychological functionWhat does the left hemisphere do?Speech and language functions are lateralized on the left hemisphere. Generally, the left hemisphere exerts greater control over speech and language abilities in virtually all right-handed and the majority of left-handed peopleWhat is Broca's area?speech productionWhat is Wernicke's area?comprehension of speechWhat is the right hemisphere?the right hemisphere is more involved in nonverbal emotional expression and visual-spatial taskwhat is conciousness?is your immediate awareness of your internal states—your thoughts, sensations, memories—and the external world around you.How can conscious states be viewed?As a continuum. our experience of consciousness as an unbroken "stream" helps provide us with a sense of personal identity that has continuity from one day to the next.What does consciousness allow us to do?to integrate past, present, and future behavior, guide future actions, and maintain a stable sense of self And, it gives us the ability to plan and execute long-term, complex goals and communicate with others.What is attention?as the capacity to selectively focus senses and awareness on particular stimuli or aspects of the environment. control emotionsWhat are the characteristics of attention?1. Attention has a limited capacity 2. Attention is selective 3. Attention can be "blind"What is inattentional blindness?failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhereWhat is change blindness?failing to notice changes in the environmentWhat helps the release of melatonin?No lightWhat would happen if we didnt have light to determine sleep?we would be awake for more than 24 hoursWhat happens to your body when you have lack of sleep?physical and mental fatigue, confusion or problems concentrating, depression or irritability, and disrupted sleepWhat is an EEG?electroencephalogram - measures electrical impulses in the brain (as waves)What are the 2 types of sleep?REM and NREMWhat happens during NREM sleep?brain waves slow down; slow-wave sleep each night in order to feel restedWhat are beta brain waves?Brain-wave pattern associated with alert wakefulness.What are alpha brain waves?Brain-wave pattern associated with relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness.What is a hypnagogic hallucination?you may experience odd but vividly realistic sensations called hypnagogic hallucinations, like hearing a loud crash or feeling as if you are flying. Some hypnagogic hallucinations can be so vivid or startling that they cause a sudden awakeningWhat is sleep paralysis, and why does it occur?some neurons in pons are only active during REM sleep; right after you wake up, you feel like you can't move, usually only lasts a few seconds- pons is still inhibiting motor neuronsHow much time does the first 3 stages of NREM sleep occupy?50-70 minutesWhat are theta brain waves?causes light sleepwhat is stage 1 of sleep?light sleep, few minutes, disconnecting from world, can regain consciousness quicklyWhat is stage 2 of sleep?true sleep, delta brain waves occur, theta present, 15-20 minutes longWhat is stage 3 of sleep?slow delta waves, deep sleep, only delta waves for 20-40 minutes. heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate drop to their lowest levels. Not surprisingly, the sleeper is almost completely oblivious to the world. Noises as loud as 90 decibels may fail to wake him. However, her muscles are still capable of movement.What happens during REM sleep?the brain becomes more active, generating smaller and faster brain waves. Visual and motor neurons in the brain activate repeatedly, just as they do during wakefulness. Dreams usually occur during REM sleep. Although the brain is very active, voluntary muscle activity is suppressed, which prevents the dreaming sleeper from acting out her dreams. physiological arousal. The sleeper's eyes dart back and forth behind closed eyelids—the rapid eye movements. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respirations can fluctuate up and down, sometimes extremely. Muscle twitches occur. In both sexes, sexual arousal may occur, which is not necessarily related to dream content.How long does the first REM sleep episode last?5 to 15 minutesBenefits of sleep?Sleep initiates a process that clears metabolic waste products from the brain Sleep is also thought to maintain immune system function, improve brain function, enhance learning and consolidate memory, and help regulate moods and emotion. a critical role in strengthening new memories and in integrating new memories with existing memoriesWhat is microsleep?sleep lasting only secondsWhat are the effects of sleep deprivation?experience disruptions in mood, mental abilities, reaction time, perceptual skills, and complex motor skillsSleep DisordersInsomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, night terrors, sleepwalkingdrug dependencetolerance, withdrawal, addiction, physical dependence, psychological dependenceThe reward pathwayDopamine projections to prefrontal cortex(increase in high amounts of dopamine while in drugs)Hallucinogens (capable of producing false perceptions)Mushrooms, mescaline, Phencyclidine (PCP), Marijuana, LSDStimulants (increase alertness and mobility is hike decreasing reaction time)Caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, methylphenidate, MDMA (ecstasy)Depressants (slow down the activity of the nervous system)Alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepinesAlcohol use and abuse highest group of heavy, binge, or current use21-25, 26-29, 18-20seizuresUncontrolled electrical disturbances in the brain that are often correlated with changes in consciousnessWhich statement can be made about designer "club" drugs, such as ecstasy?They are synthesized in a laboratory rather than derived from naturally occurring compounds._____brain-wave patterns are associated with alert wakefulness.BetaThe active ingredient found in marijuana that causes a "high" feeling is:THCTypically occurring during stage 3 NREM sleep, the type of parasomnia known as a _____ is often characterized by increased physiological arousal, intense fear and panic, frightening hallucinations, and no recall of the episode the next morning.sleep terrorYou are just about to fall asleep when you have the sudden feeling of falling and your body spasms involuntarily. You have experienced: a microsleep.a myoclonic jerk.Which of these emphasizes the continuity between waking and dreaming cognition?neurocognitive model of dreamingSampson is getting ready to go to the dentist, but the dentist always makes him very anxious. In talking about this anxiety with his counselor, he is instructed to sit quietly for 15 minutes every morning and mentally repeat the word "peace." Sampson is practicing a technique of meditation known as:mantra.Although Samantha had just gone grocery shopping yesterday, she awoke the next morning to find that there was very little food in her kitchen. Samantha lives alone and there was no sign of a break-in. She has experienced which of these?sleep-related eating disorderKeeping a _____ can help an insomnia sufferer track his or her sleep and sleep-related behavior.sleep diarySleepwalking and sleep terrors are _____ that tend to occur in _____.parasomnias; stage 3 NREM sleepOne essential feature in hypnosis is that:a cooperative social interaction must exist.Which statement can be made about dreams?Approximately 80 percent of people's dreams are in color, usually pastel shades.According to the Critical Thinking box "Is Hypnosis a Special State of Consciousness?" the _____ suggests that hypnotized subjects are responding to social demands by acting the way they think good hypnotized subjects should act and by conforming to expectations and situational cognitive theoryWhich statement is TRUE according to the In Focus box?Research suggests that highly social animals display contagious yawning.Techniques for focusing attention, which are found in most cultures and many religions, are called:meditationSome of the benefits of practicing transcendental meditation are that it can reduce:high blood pressure.Chris, who has a very warm, loving relationship with his husband, dreamed that he had an intense, emotional argument with him in which he shouted and screamed and called him names. Chris's psychoanalyst suggested that Chris must have some deeply repressed anger and frustration toward his father that was expressed symbolically in the dream about his husband. Chris's account of the dream represents the _____, and his therapist's account represents the _____.manifest content; latent contentPsychologists Irving Kirsch and Wayne Braffman propose that many highly suggestible participants are just as responsive to suggestions when they have not been hypnotized as when they have been hypnotized. They note that hypnosis does not reflect a distinct brain state but rather individual differences in the degree to which a person is able to experience an imaginary state of affairs as if it were real. Their explanation of hypnosis is called the:imaginative suggestibility view.dependent variableThe outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.independent variableThe experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.insomniastress