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79 terms

Blood & Heart

STUDY
PLAY
The formed elements of blood include all of the following except
A) red blood cells
B) white blood cells
C) platelets
D) plasma
D) plasma
The structure of red blood cells is that of A)disks that are convex on one side and concave on the other B)irregularly shaped fragments without a nucleus C)relatively large cells with multiple nuclei D)biconcave disks that increases surface area
D) biconcave disks that increases surface area
Which of the following conditions would result in a low hematocrit? A)dehydration B)severe bleeding C)increased production of erythrocytes by the kidneys D)high levels of erythropoietin
B)severe bleeding
Damaged red blood cells are destroyed by cells called
A) leukocytes
B) macrophages
C) neutrophils
D) granulocytes
B) macrophages
The heme portion of damaged red blood cells is decomposed first into iron and
A) biliverdin
B) bilirubin
C) bile
D) copper
A) biliverdin
Erythropoietin is released by the kidney in direct response to
A) a decrease in the number of red blood cells
B) an increase in circulating biliverdin
C) stimuli originating in the lungs
D) a decrease in circulating oxygen concentration
D) a decrease in circulating oxygen concentration
In an adult, red blood cells are produced in
A) the spleen
B) red marrow
C) the liver
D) yellow marrow
B) red marrow
The production of red blood cells is dependent on adequate intake of
A) iron, folic acid, and vitamin B1
B) copper, vitamin K, and vitamin B12
C) iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12
D) zinc, vitamin K, and vitamin B1
C) iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12
The white cell that is not a granulocyte is a
A) lymphocyte
B) eosinophil
C) neutrophil
D) basophil
A) lymphocyte
The most numerous white blood cell is the
A) neutrophil
B) eosinophil
C) monocyte
D) lymphocyte
A) neutrophil
The white blood cell that forms antibodies necessary for immunity to specific diseases is the
A) basophil
B) lymphocyte
C) thrombocyte
D) eosinophil
B) lymphocyte
_____ function in clotting
thrombocytes (platelets)
The white cell that would increase in certain parasitic infections and allergic reactions is
A) neutrophils
B) eosinophils
C) monocytes
D) basophils
B) eosinophils
what white cell is imortant in phagocytosis?
monocytes
Diapedesis is
A)another term for phagocytosis by monocytes B)the mechanism by which leukocytes recognize foreign substances to attack C)the ability of leukocytes to leave blood vessels to reach the tissue D)the production of blood cells by red bone marrow
C)the ability of leukocytes to leave blood vessels to reach the tissue
The most mobile and phagocytic white cells are
A) neutrophils and monocytes
B) basophils and lymphocytes
C) eosinophils and basophils
D) monocytes and lymphocytes
A) neutrophils and monocytes
Platelets
A)contain a large, multilobular nucleus similar to neutrophils B)have a life span equal to that of erythrocytes C)arise from marrow cells called megakaryocytes D)develop in response to the hormone erythropoietin
C)arise from marrow cells called megakaryocytes
A form of cancer characterized by uncontrolled production of white blood cells is
A) Hodgkin's disease
B) lymphoma
C) leukemia
D) anemia
C) leukemia
The plasma protein produced by lymphocytes is
A) albumin
B) gamma globulin
C) fibrinogen
D) alpha globulin
B) gamma globulin
Albumin is made in the ______
liver
Most nutrients found in the plasma were primarily absorbed from the
A) liver
B) stomach
C) small intestine
D) large intestine
C) small intestine
what organ synthesizes plasma proteins?
liver
A platelet plug begins to form when platelets are
A) exposed to air
B) exposed to a rough surface
C) exposed to calcium
D) crushed
B) exposed to a rough surface
Substances believed to activate prothrombin include
A) calcium ions
B) potassium ions
C) platelets
D) glucose
A) calcium ions
_____ and ______ activate synthesis of prothrombin
calcium and vitamin K
Prothrombin is a plasma protein produced by the
A) kidney
B) small intestine
C) pancreas
D) liver
D) Liver
Plasma proteins including _________ and prothrombin are made in the liver
fibrinogen
The clumping of erythrocytes when different blood types are mixed is due to interaction between antibodies in the plasma and
A) antigens in the plasma
B) antigens on the erythrocytes
C) antigens on leukocytes
D) antibodies on the erythrocytes
B) antigens on the erythrocytes
A person with type A blood has
A) antigen A and the anti-B antibody
B) antigens A and B
C) antibodies A and B
D) antigen B and anti-A antibody
A) antigen A and the anti-B antibody
The blood type that lacks antigens A or B is
A) type AB
B) type O
C) type A
D) type B
B) type O
What blood type lacks either A or B antigen, but has both antibodies
Type O
Antibodies for Rh appear
A) spontaneously as an inherited trait
B) only rarely for poorly understood reasons
C) in response to exposure to Rh antigens
D) only in Rh-negative infants
C) in response to exposure to Rh antigens
Rh ________ can only be made by exposure to Rh ________.
antibodies , antigens
Blood is both heavier and more viscous than water.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Red blood cells in the blood lack a nucleus and therefore cannot synthesize proteins or reproduce.
A) True
B) False
A)True
Women typically have a higher red blood cell count than men.
A) True
B) False
B) False
What is another word for RBC count?
hematocrit
What is the average life span of a RBC?
100-120 days
Erythropoietin is produced by the spleen.
A) True
B) False
B) False
Where is the hormone Erythropoietin produced?
kidneys
Folic acid and vitamin B12 are necessary for DNA synthesis but the rapidity of red cell turnover makes this tissue especially vulnerable to deficiency.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Agranulocytes are white cells that have granular cytoplasm.
A) True
B) False
B) False
The term _________ refers to the histological absence of visible granules in the cytoplasm
agranulocyte
The five types of white blood cells are classified according to size, the nature of their cytoplasm, nuclei shape, and how they stain.
A) True
B) False
A)True
Granulocytes have a very long life span in circulating blood.
A) True
B) False
B) False
________, _______, and ______ white cells live only hours to days
Eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils
Lymphocytes account for 25-33% of circulating leukocytes and live for many years.
A) True
B) False
A)True
A normal white count is 15,000 to 20,000 WBC's/cubic millimeter of blood.
A) True
B) False
B) False
A normal WBC count is ______-_____ per mm3
5,000-10,000
A differential count lists the percentages of the types of leukocytes.
A) True
B) False
A)True
The cytoplasmic granules of basophils contain heparin and histamine.
A) True
B) False
A)True
_________ secrete heparin and histamines
Basophils
Globulins are plasma proteins that play a significant role in maintaining osmotic pressure.
A) True
B) False
B) False
The main function of most globulins is in_______
immunity
_______ is the most common osmotic molecule
albumin
Potassium is the most abundant electrolyte carried in plasma.
A) True
B) False
B) False
The most abundant cation in plasma is ______
sodium
A blood clot forming abnormally in a blood vessel is a thrombus.
A) True
B) False
A) True
After the Hemoglobin is broke down the heme breaks down into biliverdin which turns into what
bilirubin
In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the globin chains...
A)are converted into biliverdin by macrophages B)are converted into bilirubin by macrophages C)are broken down by macrophages into amino acids D)are stored in various tissues E)contribute to the color of feces
C)are broken down by macrophages into amino acids
In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the iron...
A)is transported by transferring to the liver B)is transported by transferring to the spleen C)is transported by transferring to the red bone marrow D)all of the above E)none of the above
D)all of the above
The sequence in the breakdown of the non-iron portion of the heme is... A)heme, bilirubin, biliverdin, conjugated biliverdin, biliverdin derivatives, feces and urine B)heme, biliverdin, bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, bilirubin derivatives, feces and urine C)heme, bilirubin, conjugated biliverdin, biliverdin, biliverdin derivatives, feces and urine D)heme, biliverdin, conjugated bilirubin, bilirubin, bilirubin derivatives, feces and urine E)heme, conjugated biliverdin, biliverdin, bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, feces and urine
B) heme, biliverdin, bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, bilirubin derivatives, feces and urine
Free bilirubin is transported by the blood to the liver.
A)True B) False
A)True
Iron is transported in the blood by transferrin.
A) True B) False
A) True
External cardiac defibrillators are used for
A) high blood pressure
B) myocardial infarction
C) sudden cardiac arrest
D) high cholesterol
C) sudden cardiac arrest
The visceral pericardium is also known as the
A) epicardium
B) myocardium
C) endocardium
D) fibrous pericardium
A) epicardium
The uppermost or most superior part of the heart is the
A) septum
B) apex
C) base
D) great vessels
C) base
The _____ is the most inferior part of the heart
apex
The thickest layer of the wall of the heart is the
A) myocardium
B) epicardium
C) ectocardium
D) endocardium
A) myocardium
The _________ is the thin inner layer of the heart.
endocardium
Purkinje fibers are located in the
A) walls of the right and left atria
B) interventricular septum and ventricles
C) walls of the left atrium and ventricle
D) interventricular septum
B) interventricular septum and ventricles
The tricuspid valve is located
A) between the left atrium and left ventricle
B) between the right atrium and right ventricle
C) between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
D) between the left ventricle and the aorta
B) between the right atrium and right ventricle
The right atrium receives blood from the
A) inferior and superior venae cavae
B) pulmonary veins
C) pulmonary artery
D) aorta
A) inferior and superior venae cavae
The _______ ________ return systemic blood to the right atrium.
venae cavae
The valve between the chambers of the left side of the heart is the
A) semilunar valve
B) mitral (bicuspid valve)
C) aortic valve
D) tricuspid valve
B) mitral (bicuspid valve)
The ______ _______ prevents backflow of blood into the left atrium from the left ventricle
mitral valve
Cardiac pain is due to
A) prolonged contraction of cardiac muscle
B) interruption of blood supply to cardiac muscle
C) damaged heart valves
D) inflammation of heart muscle and valves
B) interruption of blood supply to cardiac muscle
Referred pain from the heart results from insufficient oxygen supply to cardiac muscle is called what?
angina pectoris
Which of the following correctly describes the events of the cardiac cycle? A)the right atrium and ventricle contract and relax, then the left atrium and ventricles contract and relax B)contraction of the chambers of the left side of the heart, contraction of the chambers of the right, relaxation of the left, relaxation of the right C)both atria contract and both ventricles relax; then both ventricles contract and both atria relax D)both atria contract and both ventricles contract; then both atria contract and both atria relax
C)both atria contract and both ventricles relax; then both ventricles contract and both atria relax