24 terms

Apologia Chemistry Module 11

the chemistry of solutions
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Solute
The substance being dissolved
Solvent
What the solute is being dissolved in
Solution
What you have when the solute and solvent are mixed together
Insoluble
Does not dissolve in water
In order to dissolve a solid, the solvent molecules ....
must be attracted to the solute molecules so strongly that the solvent molecules can get between the solute molecules (or ions) and pull them far apart from each other
In order to dissolve a liquid, the solvent molecules .....
need only be attracted to the solute molecules a little, because the solvent doesn't need to separate the solute very much
In order to dissolve a gas, the solvent molecules ....
must be attracted to the solute molecules enough to pull the solute molecules closet to one another
Solubility
The maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent
The solubility of any solute depends upon ...
the identity of the solute AND the identity of the solvent
Saturated solution
A solution in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved
Precipitation
The process by which a solid solute leaves a solution and turns back into its solid phase
For solid solutes, solubility _______ with increasing temperature
usually increases
The solubility of liquid solute (is, is not) affected by temperature
is not
The solubility of gases _______ with increasing temperature
decreases
Increasing pressure _______ the solubility of gases
increases
Pressure (does, does not) affect the solubility of either liquids or solids
does not
Exothermic process
A process that RELEASES heat
Endothermic process
A process that ABSORBS heat
Molality
The number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
m = #moles solute/#kg solvent
Molarity uses _______________ while molality uses ___________________.
total volume of solution

amount of solvent in kg
Freezing point depression
When a solute is dissolved in a solvent, the solution always has a LOWER freezing point than the pure solvent
Freezing point depression formula
∆T = -iK(f)m
T = temperature (°C)
i = # molecules (or ions) the solute splits into
m = molality
K(f) = freezing point depression constant (°C/m)
Boiling point elevation
When a solute is dissolved in a solvent, the boiling point of the solution is HIGHER than that of the pure solvent
Boiling point elevation formula:
∆T = iK(b)m
T = temperature (°C)
i = # molecules (or ions) the solute splits into
m = molality
K(b) = boiling point depression constant (°C/m)
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