Davis Physics Final (vocab)
Terms in this set (64)
a push or pull
the combination of all forces acting on an object
_________ is needed to change an object's state of motion.
an arrow that represents the magnitude and direction of a quantity
a quantity that needs both magnitude and direction
a quantity that can only be described by magnitude, no direction
a state wherein no physical changes occur; a state of steadiness
When the net force on an object is zero, the object is said to be in mechanical equilibrium
the sum of
What does a sigma stand for? (Σ)
the upward force that balances the weight of an object of a surface (also called normal force)
the object's weight
For an object at rest on a horizontal surface, the support force must equal...
the ______ of a parallelogram shows the resultant
straight up or straight down motion; heavy things falling, light things rising, circular motion
imposed motion; the result of forces that pushed or pulled
Greek scientist; studied motion and divided it into two types, natural and violent
astronomer who reasoned that the simplest way to interpret astronomical observations was to assume that Earth and the other planets moved around the sun
the force that acts between materials that touch as they move past each other
the property of a body to resist changes to its state of motion
scientist who supported Copernicus; argued that only when friction is present, a force is needed to keep an object moving
Newton's first law
every object continues in a state of rest, or of uniform speed in a straight line, unless acted on by a nonzero net force
law of inertia
Newton's first law
a measure of space measured in units such as cubic centimeters, cubic meters, and liters
mass is measured in the fundamental unit of....
a measure of the gravitational force acting on an object
the quantity of matter in an object
True/False. The law of inertia states that objects in motion remain in motion if no unbalanced forces act on them
The SI unit of force is the...
When describing the motion of an object with respect to another, the object is moving _____ to the other object
an object is ________ if its position relative to a fixed point is changing
how fast an object is moving
dividing distance covered by time
You can calculate the speed of an object by
the speed at any instant
the total distance covered divided by the time
speed in a given direction
the rate at which the velocity is changing; change of velocity/time interval
an object moving under the influence of the gravitational force only
the time that has passed since the beginning of any motion
acceleration of an object in free fall
For each second of free fall, an object falls... the same, greater, or less distance than it did in the previous second?
two vectors at right angles that add up to a given vector are known as the _________ of the vector they replace
the process of determining the components of a vector is called
Are the perpendicular components of a vector dependent or independent on/from each other?
any object that moves through the air or space, acted on only by gravity
_________ forces acting on an object cause the object to accelerate
Acceleration is _______ proportional to mass
Newton's second law
States that the acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, is in the same direction as the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object
substances that flow; have friction
the friction acting on something moving through air
the amount of force per unit of area
pressure is measured in newtons per square meter, also known as...
the speed at which the acceleration of a falling object is zero because friction balances the weight
terminal speed together with the direction of motion
when in terminal speed, a falling object has an acceleration of...
a mutual action is an _________ between one thing and another
Newton's third law
states that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object
action and reaction
These forces can be used interchangeably; they are partners in a single interaction and neither force exists without the other
True/False. Action and reaction forces cancel each other when either of the forces is external to the system being considered.
the mass of an object multiplied by its velocity
the quantity force times time interval is called...
Is the impulse required to bring an object to a stop and then "throw it back again" greater than the impulse required to bring the object to a stop?
law of conservation of motion
states that, in the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged
when objects collide without being permanently deformed and without generating heat
when colliding objects become distorted and generate heat