Chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema and constriction and increased mucus production.
*Signs and symptoms: dyspnea, wheezing, and cough.
*Etiology can involve allergy or infection.
*Triggers: exercise, strong odors, cold air, stress, allergens (tobacco smoke, pet dander, dusts, molds, pollens, foods) and medications (aspirins, beta-blockers).
-Fast-acting agents for acute symptoms; example is an albuteol inhaler (bronchodilator).
-Long-acting agents for long term control; examples are gulcocorticoids (inhaled), oral steriods (anti-inflammatory drugs), and leukotriene blockers such as Singulair.
Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchi.
*Often associated with cigarette smoking, is the most frequent fatal malignancy.
*Lung cancers are divided into two general catergories: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
-Accounts for 90% of lung cancers and comprises three main types: adenocarcinoma (derived from mucus-secreting cells), squamous cell carcinoma (derived from the lining cells of the upper airway), and large cell lung cancer.
-If nodes are negative, the patient is a good canidate for surgery.
-If nodes are positive, multimodality treatment (chemotherapy and irradiation), with or without surgery, is an option.
-In some patients, often nonsmokers, NSCLC may be caused by a mutation (change) in epitherlial lung tissue; example EGFR inhibitors.
-Derives from small, round ("oat" cells) cells found in pulmonary epithelium.
-It grows rapidly early and quickly spreads outside the lung.
-Treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy may lead to remissions.
Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction.
*Infection damages alveolar membrane so that an exudate (fluid, blood cells, and debris) consolidates the alveoli (sacs become "glued" together, making air exchange less effective).
*An infiltrate is a fluid-filled area within the lungs as seen on a chest x-ray or CT scan.
*Lobar pneumonia involves an entire lobe of a lung.
*Bronchopneumonia is a limited form of infection that produces patchy consolidation (abcesses) in the lung parenchyma.
*Treatment: appropriate antibiotics and, if necessary, oxygen and mechanical ventilation in severe cases.
*Community-acquired pneumonia results from a contagious respiratory infection, caused by a variety of viruses and bacteria.
-It usually is treated at home with oral antibiotics.
*Hospital-acquired pneumonia or nosocomial pneumonia is acquired during hospitalization.
-Ex: Patients may contract pneumonia while on mechanical ventilation or as a hospital-acquired infection.
*Aspiration pneumonia is caused by material, sucha as food or vomitus, lodging in bronchi or lungs.
-It is danger in the elderly, Alzheimer disease patients, stroke victims, and people with esophageal reflux and feeding tubes.