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AP Test 2
Terms in this set (47)
Know what type of messenger the endocrine system uses
The Endocrine system messages to essentially all cells by secretion into blood and extracellular fluid. With endocrine messages, cells must bear a receptor for the hormone to respond.
Know the target tissue for the hypothalamus
It targets the adrenal glands, thyroid, testes, anterior pituitary, and skin pigment cells.
Know the hormone of the pineal gland
Secretion of Melatonin or cerebrospinal fluid.
know what hormones are secreted by the pituitary gland
Cortisol, growth, prolactin, thyroid stimulating, oxytocin, anti-diuretic.
Know the hormone that stimulates the secretion of testosterone
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
the hormone ADH targets what
know what oxytocin does
stimulates uterine contractions and milk ejection during suckling
know the function of glucagon
increases blood glucose levels by stimulating liver to break down glycogen into glucose
know the function of epinephrine
promotes fight-or-flight response
know what happens to someone's hormones after they eat
Cholecystokinin is a gut hormone released after a meal which helps digestion and reduces appetite.
know what happens to hormones if you do not eat for a while
know what happens to hormone levels at puberty
Growth hormone levels rise steadily throughout puberty. IGF1 levels rise and then decline as puberty ends
know the role of oxytocin's role at child birth
Oxytocin stimulates powerful contractions, which help to thin and open (dilate) the cervix, move the baby down and out of the birth canal, expel the placenta, and limit bleeding at the site of the placenta. During labor and birth, the pressure of the baby against the cervix, and then against tissues in the pelvic floor, stimulates oxytocin and contractions. So does a suckling newborn.
know the function of ADH
decreases water lost in urine by returning water to the blood
what is the term for glucose in the urine
glycosuria or glucosuria
what causes polyuria and polydipsia
Use of diuretics and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus are common causes
know what diabetes mellitus is
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period
know the root words that combine to form blood
what is the heavier solid component
know the most abundant component of plasma
what leukocytes release histamine and promote inflammation
neutrophils, eosinophil's, basophils, mast cells
know what erythrocytes are and what they do
erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body
...the formation of blood.
know what causes the production of red blood cells
is controlled by erythropoietin, a hormone produced primarily by the kidneys. Red blood cells start as immature cells in the bone marrow and after approximately seven days of maturation are released into the bloodstream.
know what hemoglobin does
Hemoglobin in the blood carries oxygen from the respiratory organs (lungs or gills) to the rest of the body
know what sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease are
Sickle cell trait (or sicklemia) describes a condition in which a person has one abnormal allele of the hemoglobin beta gene (is heterozygous), but does not display the severe symptoms of sickle cell disease. Sickle cell anemia is a disease passed down through families. The red blood cells that are normally shaped like a disc take on a sickle or crescent shape. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body.
know the RDA of iron
know the nutrients important for erythropoiesis and each of their roes in the process
Cobalamin (Vit B12)
Folate (folic acid)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Folate Deficiency anemia
Iron Deficiency anemia
know which organs remove old red blood cells
spleen, liver, kidneys, colon
know how blood type is determined and the significance of each blood type
based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
know what blood types can receive transfusion from other blood types
know the functions and types of white blood cells
are the cells of the immune system that are involved in defending the body against both infectious disease. The white cells include neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils.
know the chambers of the heart
A normal heart has two upper and two lower chambers. The upper chambers, the right and left atria, receive incoming blood. The lower chambers, the more muscular right and left ventricles, pump blood out of your heart.
know the valves of the heart
1.The tricuspid valve
2.The pulmonic or pulmonary valve
3.The mitral valve
4.The aortic valve
know the characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue
Cardiac muscle is characterized by striped muscle fibers, connected together by intercolated disks, where the membranes are specialized to allow electrical signals to pass easily
know the structures that return deoxygenated blood back to the heart
Deoxygenated blood returning to the heart is pumped through the right ventricle to the lungs
know the vessels that take blood to the lungs
pulmonary blood vessels
what does blood receive in the lungs
know the pathway of blood to the heart
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lung capillaries, pulmonary vein, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aorta
know what the body's internal pacemaker is called
In the upper part of the right atrium is a specialized bundle of neurons known as the sinoatrial node
know the different parts of the ECG wave
P waves, T wave, QRS complex
define cardiac output
is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle in the time interval of one minute
know the equation for cardiac output
Q = Stroke Volume × Heart rate
define the term for tension in the myocardium on the ventricular walls
know what assists venous return in the blood
one way valves
define normal blood pressure
less than 120 systolic and less than 80 diastolic
Hardening of the arteries, also called atherosclerosis, is a common disorder. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form hard structures called plaques