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Ap Psych Summer Pt 2

25-50
STUDY
PLAY
Operational Definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
Survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
Random Assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
False Consensus Effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Random Sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Naturalistic Observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
population
All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participaents in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to participants and circumstances
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
Hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Critical Thinking
Thinking that does not blindly accept
Empiricism
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
dependent variable
The experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Mean
the arithmatic average of distribution
Mode
the most frequently occurring score in a distribution
threshold
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
correlation coefficient
A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
statistical significance
a statement of how likely it is that a recorded observation happened by chance