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a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
False Consensus Effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participaents in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to participants and circumstances
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
The experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
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