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Psychology 311 - Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (120)
A teacher's job, also known as a teacher's privilege, is to help particular "young people" to...
Realize their potential
Most teachers find satisfaction in designing and orchestrating complex activities that communicate new ideas and skills effectively. This is where they exercise their ________ most freely.
_______ has made teaching more fulfilling as a career, but also made more challenging in certain respects.
According to the United States Census Bureau, about ________ percent of the Hispanic population speak primarily Spanish.
Because both the public and educators themselves pay more attention than in the past to how to assess learning and good quality teaching, there is greater ________ in education.
As a teacher, it is up to you to lay groundwork for _________ learning.
_________ improves teaching, but by creating higher standards of practice it also creates greater worries about whether particular teachers and schools are "good enough"
Public accountability has led to increased use of __________, which are tests taken by all students in a district or region that have important consequences for students' further education.
Greater professionalism has also been encouraged by initiatives from educators themselves to study and improve their own practice. This is considered _________.
Increased _________ requires classrooms, schools, and students use computers more often today than in the past for research, writing, communicating, and keeping records.
__________ is generally defined as relatively permanent changes in behavior, skills, knowledge, or attitudes resulting from identifiable psychological or social experiences.
Teachers' perspectives on learning often emphasize three ideas: (1) curriculum content and academic achievement, (2) _________, and (3) the importance of transferring learning to new or future situations.
Sequencing and readiness
Teachers equate learning with the major forms of academic achievement, especially _________ and ________.
__________ is traditionally the concept referred to students' preparedness to cope with or profit from the activities and expectations of school.
___________ is the perspective on learning that focuses on changes in individuals' observable behaviors---changes in what people say or do.
______ focuses in how the consequences of a behavior affect the behavior over time.
A kindergarten child raises her hand in response to the teacher's question about a story. The teacher calls on her and she makes a comment. Which is the operant?
Child raises their hand.
A child who is usually very restless sits for five minutes doing an assignment. The teaching assistant compliments him for working hard. Which is the reinforcement?
Teaching assistant compliments the child for working hard
Reading a book for the sheer enjoyment of reading is an example of ________.
Olivia enjoys playing softball, but she has yet to hit a home run. She asks her coach to stay late after practice for some one on one batting lessons in hopes to improve her swing. This is an example of ________.
_______ refers to long term personal changes that have multiple sources and multiple effects
At approximately the age of _____ the average girl is taller, but not much heavier, than the average boy
By the end of high school, more than _______ of boys and girls report having experiences sexual intercourse at least once.
A government survey estimated that children get an average of _____ colds per year, but adults get only about _____ per year.
As of 2004, about ________ of teenagers reported drinking an alcoholic beverage at least occasionally, and ________ reported smoking cigarettes.
Piaget proposed _____ major stages of cognitive development.
_________ is the belief that an object exists whether or not it is actually present.
In the ___________, child use their new ability to represent objects in a wide variety activities, but they do not yet do it in ways that are organized or fully logical
Jane's teacher has two glasses filled with 8oz of juice. She pours one glass into a short, wide vase and the other glass into tall, skinny vase. Although both vases contain 8oz of juice, Jane believes the tall, skinny vase contains "more". This is an example of ________.
________ is when the child becomes able to reason not only about tangible objects and events, but also about hypothetical or abstract ones.
Formal operational stage
Typical ways of perceiving and remembering information, and typical ways of solving problems and making decisions.
A single broad ability that allows a person to solve or complete many sorts of tasks, or at least many academic tasks like reading, knowledge of vocabulary, and the solving of logical problems.
Ability to imagine and manipulate the arrangement of objects in the environment.
Ability to discern others' nonverbal feelings and thoughts.
According to Gardner, solving mathematical problems easily and accurately would be considered which type of intelligence?
According to Gardner, identifying true motives for an action in oneself would be considered which type of intelligence?
In general, teachers interact with boys more often than with girls by a margin of ________.
________ is the belief that relationships and responsibilities, and not uniqueness and autonomy, that defines a person.
A common conversation pattern that teachers utilize is sometimes called the IRE cycle, which is an abbreviation for _______, _______, and ________.
Initiating; responding; explaining
When a student defines themselves not by who they are, but by how they differ from or oppose mainstream culture is called _______.
Oppositional cultural identity
This law required that individuals with disabilities be accommodated in any program or activity that receives federal funding
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504
____________ specifically requires accommodations to be made in public facilities such as with buses, restrooms, and telephones
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)
This law guarantees rights related to education for anyone with a disability from birth to age 21 such as: free, appropriate education, due process, fair evaluation of performance in spite of disability, education in the "least restrictive environment", and an individualized educational program.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
_________ refers to gathering information about a student in order both to identify the strengths of the student, and to decide what special educational support, if any, the student needs.
The combination of settings that involve the student with regular classrooms and school programs
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
A(n) ___________ is created by a team of individuals who know the student's strengths and needs; at a minimum it includes one or more classroom teachers, a "resource" or special education teacher, and the student's parents or guardians.
Individual Education Plan (IEP)
A ___________ is a special impairment of academic learning that interferes with a specific aspect of schoolwork and that reduces a student's academic performance significantly.
In the classroom, the student with _______ may fidget and squirm a lot, or have trouble remaining seated, or continually get districts and off task, or have trouble waiting for a turn, or blurt out answers and comments.
An ________ is a significant limitation in a student's cognitive functioning and daily adaptive behaviors.
Agreements between the teacher and a student about exactly what work the student will do, how it will be rewarded, and what consequences will be if the agreement is not fulfilled.
When using operant conditioning as motivation, the teacher making encouraging remarks about student's homework, is an example of what concept?
When using operant conditioning as motivation, the teacher praising a highly active student sometimes when he works without interruption, but not every time, is an example of what concept?
A Stimulus that motivates by its absence or avoidance is ________.
A motivator that occurs each time that a behavioral sign of motivation occurs is _______.
Not working hard, procrastination, and setting unrealistic goals are examples of _________.
A perception of complete lack of control in mastering a task.
The belief that you are capable of carrying out specific tasks or of reaching a specific goal.
The need to feel free of external constraints on behavior.
The need to feel connected or involved with others.
The need to feel capable or skilled.
Three common ways to communicate with parents are: regular classroom letters, telephone calls, and __________.
__________ make working with peers easier, and __________ make listening to the teacher more likely and groups work slightly more awkward physically.
__________ is likely for specialized teachers (e.g. music teachers in elementary schools, who move from class to class) and in schools have an overall shortage of classrooms
Checking daily attendance, dealing with students who arrive late, or granting permission to leave the classroom for an errand are all examples of _______.
At a particular moment, you may be focusing on helping a student, but in some corner of your eye you also notice when chatting begins on the other side of the room. This is an example of ________.
Simultaneous awareness—withitness—makes possible responses to the multiple events that are immediate and nearly simultaneous—what educators sometimes called ________.
__________ is essential if students are to learn and if they are to develop classroom behavior that is socially skilled and "mature".
___________ is/are often appropriate if a misbehavior is just a little too serious or frequent to ignore, but not serious or frequent enough to merit taking the time to deliberately to speak to or talk with the student.
The reduction of disagreements that persists over time.
Systematically discussing options and compromising on one if possible.
Focuses on what is being learned; it happens when a teacher or student states or asks about an idea or concept, for example, or when someone explains or elaborates on some bit of new knowledge.
"When you are done with your spelling books, put them in the bins at the side of the room" is an example of ___________.
"Jill, you were talking when you should have been listening," is an example of _________.
This happens when a teacher looks directly at students to emphasize a point or to assert her authority, or when the teacher raises her eyebrows to convey disapproval or disagreement
A teacher may say, "This section of the text won't be on the test, but read it anyway for background," but a student may instead hear the message, "Do not read this section of the text." What the student heard is considered _________.
A set of rights and responsibilities expected from students and teacher during an activity.
A strategy for helping students articulate their ideas is to increase the __________ between when the teacher asks a questions and when the teacher expects a student to answer.
One of the most effective ways to promote creativity and communication in the classroom is to encourage ____________ thinking
Four common participation structures are lectures, questions-and-answers, classroom discussions, and ________.
To be effective in using nonverbal communication, teachers need to use appropriate eye contact, allow ample wait time between speaking turns, and be aware of the effects of ________ on students.
Requires skill at analyzing the reliability and validity of information, as well as the attitude or disposition to do so.
The generation of ideas that are new as well as useful, productive, and appropriate
Ideas that are open-ended and that lead in many directions
Logical reasoning about ideas and experiences that lead to specific answers
Using knowledge or experiences with similar features or structures to help solve the problem at hand
An activity that focuses or orients the attention of students to the upcoming content
Brief overviews or introductions to new material before the material itself is presented
Diagrams of the connections among concepts or ideas.
A well-defined procedure for solving a particular kind of problem
General strategies that do not always work, but often do, or that provide at least partial solutions
To have students write a brief essay explaining the meaning of a common figure of speech, and speculating on why it became common usage, is a classroom curriculum example of which grade level?
To have students keep journal of unfamiliar words which they encounter and of what they think the words mean, is a classroom example of which grade level?
According to state curriculum standards of language arts, students should be able to verify meanings of words by the author's use of definition, restatement, example, comparison, contrast and cause and effect at which grade level?
In 2007, about ________ of all households in the United States and Canada have have at least some sort of internet access, and virtually ________ of public and private schools have some access
Mrs. Landry's second grade class is studying holidays. Mrs. Landry includes activities and information about Kwanzaa as well as Christmas, Hanukkah, and other holidays happening at about the same time. This is an example of _______.
Recalling the functions of each part of a living is an example of _______ knowledge.
Recalling not the names of the parts, but a technique for remembering the names of the parts of a living cell, is an example of _______ knowledge.
________ refers to encouraging students to recall what they know already about new material being learned
Activating prior knowledge
A(n) ____________ is one that explicitly builds on interests expressed by students, rather than goals set by curriculum writers, curriculum documents, or teachers
When students have the opportunity to review and repeat their knowledge at their own pace and with fewer interruptions
In __________ students complete a specific task while teachers observe the process or procedure.
_________ are a purposeful collection of student work not just folders of all the work a student does.
The priority of a(n) ___________ is designing and using assessment strategies to enhance student learning and development.
Assessment for learning
Takes place during the course of instruction by providing information that teachers can use to revise their teaching and students can use to improve their learning.
_______ is the evaluation of the "adequacy and appropriateness of the interpretations and uses of assessment results" for a given group of individuals.
_______ refers to the consistency of the measurement.
_______ occurs in assessment when there are components in the assessment method or administration of the assessment that distort the performance of the student because of their personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, or social class
Walking around the room to observe more students "up close" and view the room from multiple perspectives is a common strategy to alleviate which common assessment problem?
Limited information and selective sampling
Common formal assessment formats used by teachers are multiple choice, _______, and true/false items.
________ items are the most commonly used type of objective test items.
A _______ expresses performance on a test in terms of standard deviation units above of below the mean.
A _______ tells us directly how many standard deviations the score is above or below the mean.
A _______ has a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10.
_______ are often used for reporting students' scores and are based on a standard nine-point scale and with a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 2.
A _______ provides an estimate of test performance based on grade level and months of the school year.
Grade equivalent score
A _______ is a listing of the number of students who obtained each score on a test.
The _______ is calculated by adding up all the scores and dividing by the number of scores.
The _______ is the "middle" score of the distribution—that is half of the scores are above the median and half are below.
The _______ is the score that occurs most often.
To determine the ______ you subtract the lowest score from the highest score.
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