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R&R Final IDs
Terms in this set (69)
Internationalism of Church
-Universal claim of the church
-Loyalty has to be with the Pope and the church
-Citizens should be a Christian first and a citizen secondly.
-If you want to go to Heaven, it is better to be poor.
-Bankers and merchants have tough time/position with church
-upper class has problems because church says "be as poor as Christ was"
ad fontes movement
"to the sources" humanist principle of returning to the authority of the original sources.
-belief in this is to emphasize what man can do and not what he can't do.
-inherent in this: secularism.
Science vs. Faith issues
-miracles increasingly defy the message of science
A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship.
belief that deviates from the expected norm.
-Peter Waldo, around 1170 (middle of Crusades), From France (hotbed of heretical activity) he was strong on the Priesthood of the believer.
-they would be heavily persecuted
-leader of Waldensians
-believed anyone can be as close/as far to God as they want by reading the Bible
-rejected the need of sacraments
-strong on the Priesthood of the Believer
Priesthood of the believer
-undermined the hierarchical form of the church
-anyone could be as close/as far to God as they want by reading the Bible.
-they are their own priest
-Promoted translation into vernacular, which demystified God's words
--People become closer to God.
-Scripture is the only source of religious authority
-Rejected need of Saints (you don't need anyone to be between you and God).
-encouraged laymen to read scripture
-England was more tolerant of heretics -> Wycliffe was able to die in his own bed.
Englishman who was an early critic of the Church; questioned its wealth and the selling of indulgences. Translated the Bible into English.
-saw themselves as people without sin or problems that other people might have
-"Montaillou" - village where Cathars live
-Inquisition was sent after them.
-Strange sense of sin -> their interpretation of commandment was imaginative
-Rejected papal control. Anything hierarchical, they rejected.
- Sexual freeness?
- Became prime target of Medieval Inquisition
Brethren of Common Life:
-Difficult to classify as a heresy.
-they just wanted to seek a mystical union with God through brotherhood, meetings, etc.
-communal life as a bridge to salvation.
-Greatly inspired Luther later on (100 years before)
-He died when invited to council of Constance
- He was burned at stake for heretical views
"Babylonian Captivity" of Papacy
-the papacy was moved from Rome to Avignon in France
- Phillip IV of France wouldn't accept authority of Pope Urban
-essentially, the Pope became a prisoner of the King of france for almost 50 years
-1 in Rome and 1 in Avignon that tried to excommunicate each other
-people worried about which to choose
-Papacy finally moved back to Rome and Pope Martin ? was chosen.
-proliferation of Church councils
-has majority vote on what doctrine is
-undermined traditional arrangements
-need to understand people were concerned about their salvation.
-Councils all over the place (ex. Council of Nicaea -> before this there hadn't really been councils)
-al seemed to indicate that power is slipping away from papacy.
-Namesake of Sistine Chapel
-Naptism: appoints family members
-Simony: buying and selling of church offices to highest bidder.
-For $, he would commit any sin or absolve you of any sin.
-Concerned with living well.
-Treaty of Tordesillas: divided world into hemispheres.
-otherwise, he was a totally depraved person.
-Had 8 children, many held offices church.
-Didn't really care about morality -> liked "the good life."
-Army leader - best known for trying to enlarge papal states.
-Last Pope before Leo X
-Leo X: pope during Luther's rebellion (Medici Pope)
-ex: Brother Chippola
-Anything that had to do with the life of Jesus
-collecting these was a good deed - God was smiling on you and this showed piety.
-they are bought and can reduce the punishment of sinning.
-Justified by: Jesus and al saints produced a surplus of good works (way more than they needed for salvation).
-these were stored in the "treasury of merits" and only the Pope had the key.
-Sells the indulgences to the people -> needed money for buildings, etc.
-The indulgences would reduce time in purgatory.
-Luther did not like this at all
-"absolute church fraud"
-nothing in the bible that says anything about this.
-biggest seller of indulgences in Germany
"treasury of merits"
collection of all virtuous acts that christ, apostles, and saints had done during lives.
-ruled by Frederick the Wise
-this part of the country had 1 vote when it was time to elect the Holy Roman Emperor.
-Luther was protected - he was pleased because he had the vote.
-"only through faith"
-rejects the Catholic notion that good works are necessary for salvation
-But, does not mean that Protestants don't do good works - they do good works because they are Christians.
-"only through scripture"
-scripture is the highest authority
-this attacks the Catholic notion of Papal authority
-Priesthood of the believer.
-"only through Grace"
-even if you have faith, you can still make no claim on God.
-God has to reach out to us through his Grace. Only God's grace can allow you to be in Heaven/have salvation.
-different from Islam.
-October 31, 1517
-his formulation of these doctrinal points becomes part of the period of "Agitation."
-4 year window; during this time, Luther could preach. In his church, published pamphlets, lashes out against conciliarism.
-remained unbothered by the Catholic church.
-He lived in Electoral Saxony - he was kind of untouchable.
-Against monasteries and nunneries
-Very active period for him, he matured greatly; man of courage.
Diet of Worms
-big show down
-meeting of all the leaders of ecclesiastical and secular states in Germany.
-Emperor Charles V there
-Luther shows up because he has been granted free passes for coming and going.
-Would Luther recant?
--would he take back all of the heresies he had been spreading?
--"here I stand, I can do no otherwise, may God help me, amen" -
the final breaking point between Catholics and Protestants
-castle where Luther would spend some time.
-Frederick the Wise thought Luther had been too visible - he is going to stay there to take it out of circulation.
-translated the Bible here
-becomes the doctrinal center for Protestant Reformation.
-strictly Lutheran view
-rejects the idea that anything is going on with the elements.
-Jesus is always present in the memorial service of the last supper.
-"con" = "with"
-wine is wine and bread is bread
-bread and wine become the actual body and blood of Christ.
-Magical powers invested in the Priesthood
--use the words of initiation.
-only God can absolve you of your sin.
-No Priest or funny stuff.
-Luther throws it out as a sacrament.
-Penitence solely result of God's grace bestowed on believer; man can do nothing by his own effort to obtain forgiveness of sins.
-well-educated and then went back to study law
-moved to Switzerland - Basel (a city) in 1530s.
--he will be more in touch with Protestants
-published "the Institutes of the Christians Religious"
--marks him as a much more systematic thinker than Luther had been. The concise definition to what Protestantism is about and provides answers.
-Calvin moves here
-Followers in France were the Huguenots
-Calvin sets up a Protestant society in Geneva.
-central theme of both Calvin and Luther is: The overwhelming power of God.
-God cannot be defined by human terms.
-Calvin= God knows what will happen to us - those that will be saved are numbered. God knows who goes to heaven and who goes to hell.
-Luther says god is all powerful but in the omnipresence of God also rests the possibility that God may change his mind.
-Live God vs. Static God. This is where the two can never agree.
Anabaptists & their opponents
-disagreed over infant baptism
-they believed that it should be a deliberate, conscious accepting of Christ
-ALL other denominations had infant baptism
-all other Christians thought not baptizing infants to dangerous because of the high mortality rate - they wouldn't be covered.
-written by a small number of farmers and priests in Schleitheim.
-Sattler is their leader
-He incorporates in this statement of beliefs:
2. ban - shunning of those who have violated the denomination's rules.
3. Lord's supper - a memorial service for them
4. separation - from the world.
5. pastors - how are they chosen?
-by the congregation
7. no oaths
-strong millenarian touch
-the 2nd coming of christ and the 1000 year reign
-they want to set up this kind of community that relfect this kind of thing.
-many come from Netherlands.
-Jan Van Laden
-renamed munster "New Jerusalem"
-tendency toward polygamy
- rejected infant baptism
-draws the scorn of every established church
-churches put together 2 armies to liberate them and Munster
-small and isolated group
-wanted to put together reason and scripture
-most prominent rep of this group would be Erasmus
-tried to navigate a course between Catholicism and Protestantism
-approach the Bible with reason and rational questions - not to be overcome with emotion
-Erasmus could never commit to a denomination.
-no living male heir
-wants to divorce from Catherine of Aragon
-falls in love with Anne Boleyn, a maid-servant
-he wants an annulment for his marriage to Catherine so that he can marry Anne.
-he is caught in a bind - if he grants the annulment, Charles and Catherine will be mad.
-he replaces the archbishop of Canterbury with Thomas C
--he grants the annulment to Henry
Act of Supremacy
-passed by parliament
-The archbishop of Canterbury now becomes the guy at the top of the Church of England.
-no more tides to Rome; no more tithes to Rome.
-daughter of Catherine.
-She favors Catholic nobles. Even thought she does not attack Anglicanism head on because too many have converted now, she manages to favor Catholics too much.
-late 16th century
-last of Henry VIII's children to rule.
-Under her rule, Anglican church prospers; she is as circumspect in religious matters as she is in political matters.
-the faith of ordinary people is not attacked; there are no forced conversions.
Ignatius of Loyola
-Jesuits; came from Spain
-Society of Jesus
-originally he was a soldier fighting for Charles V.
-in one of those battles, he became one of the earliest victims of a gunshot wound. he was badly wounded and he took a long time to recuperate.
-during his recuperation phase, he had a lot of time to think. he decided that he would devote all of his energy to the papacy/strength of the Catholic church.
-the organization of the order is very hierarchical as Loyola would have known in the military.
-leader of the Jesuits is called the "general."
-they take the three vows: 1. poverty 2. celibacy. 3. obedience.
Council of Trent
-reaffirmation of basic doctrines; no more indulgences sold; index of prohibited books as a catholic weapon; clerical reforms.
-Calendar reform strengthened Catholicism where it existed and divided Protestantism where it existed.
-the calendar used to b e the Julian calendar until 1582. in this calendar, the year was 365.250 days long.
-After 1600 years, the calendar is 10 days off.
-how do we fix this?
-the decision is that all Catholics go to bed on October 4, 1582 and when they wake up the next morning, it is October 15th.
-7 northern United Provinces (Netherlands) independent by 1570s; southern 10 provinces (Belgium) remain Spanish (later Austrian).
-it is in part their prosperity that drives the Dutch into a revolt; they think that they have earned their money and they want it to stay in Amsterdam, they don't want to ship all of their wealth to Madrid, Spain. It is an economic issue that drives them into revolt into Spain.
-there is nationalism; they don't want to speak Spanish.
-Calvinists arrive in the lower countries.
Peace of Augsburg
-they agreed upon "cuirass region, eius religious"
->>whoever is reigning determines religion.
-this helps the fractured catholic church.
-minor population shifts occur
-for 70 years Germans do not participate in the religious wars.
-Reformer of North Switzerland.
-Basel, Zurich, Bond, and the N. Alps.
-society was very urban and forward thinking
-this created 'fertile ground' for reformers because it housed many bankers.
-views communion as a memorial service only. it is a remembrance.
-King of Spain (1556 - 1598)
-Married to Queen Mary I of England
-Ruled at the time of the Armada
-Controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies
Duke of Medina-Sidonia
-Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th -Admiral of the Spanish Armada
-Defeated by the English
-Did not want to command the fleet
Duke of Parma
-Philip II's nephew who crushed the Dutch revolts by seizing Antwerp
-Split the provinces in the Netherlands in 1578
Pope Sixtus V
- Catholic Pope 16th cent.
-Encouraged the Spanish Armada
-Promised to pay Philip 1 million gold ducats the moment Spanish troops landed in England
-Unite kingdoms under Catholicism
Howard of Effingham
-Commander of English fleet during the Armada
-English won the battle
Sir Francis Drake
- Commander of the English fleet (1540-1596)
- Know as "Sea dog"
- Plundered in the name of Protestant England against Spanish ships and settlements
-Blocked the Armada from behind
-A follower of Luther (in Wittenberg)
-Emphasized inner renewal, obedience to Christ 'in' us
-A radical German Anabaptist who was a rebel
-Leader during the Peasants' War of 1524-26
-Luther despised Muntzer for his politicization of the Reformation
The Marburg Colloquy
-A meeting at Marburg Castle in Germany which attempted to solve a dispute between Martin Luther and Zwingli
-Debated over the symbolic or spiritual presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper
The Munster Debacle
-Radicle attempt by Anabaptists to establish a communal sectarian government in the German city of Münster.
- The city was under Anabaptist rule from February 1534.
-Melchior Hoffman initiated adult baptism in Strasbourg in 1530.
The Diet of Speyer
-Initiated a change in worship and ecclesiastical institutions
-ius reformandi (the right of the reformations)
The Diet of Speyer
-Sparked 'protestatio' protects the minority against unjust majority
-Set up the protestant principle and the role of conscience
The Diet of Augsburg
-Held by Charles V
-An assembly of Protestant and Catholic representatives in which leaders unsuccessfully tried to revert all Lutherans to Catholicism
-Princes decide their own religion
Princes decide their own religion
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