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Chapter 5 and 6 Review
Questions from class site
Terms in this set (29)
Name the 5 layers of epidermis found in thick skin and the 2 layers of dermis.
- stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale
- papillary dermis and reticular dermis
What two types of connective tissue proper are most prevalent in the skin?
areolar and dense irregular connective tissue
Differentiate between the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and name the three types of protein fibers or filaments in each.
- cytoskeleton: inside cells (includes actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules)
- extracellular matrix: outside cells (includes collagen fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers)
What is the most common type of cell in the epidermis, and what is its primary function?
Name three pigments (and their properties) that contribute to skin color.
melanin (brown/black), carotene (yellow/orange), and hemoglobin (red, when bound to oxygen)
In which specific layer of the skin are melanocytes typically found?
In a stratified epithelium, when cell shape is not uniform, what main characteristic dictates how the epithelial type is determined with regard to the shape of cells?
the shape of cells in the apical layer of a stratified epithelium determines part of its name (e.g., stratified squamous epithelium)
Briefly describe how are skin, vitamin D, and calcium are closely related to bone health?
The skin synthesizes a precursor of vitamin D; the active form of vitamin D is required for optimal calcium absorption from the intestinal lumen and reabsorption of calcium by the urinary system. Calcium is an essential component of the inorganic extracellular matrix of bone.
What macrophage-like cell is commonly typically found in the epidermis?
T or F: Capillaries in the epidermis nourish it with glucose, oxygen, and other nutrients.
Identify the two most prevalent types of loose connective tissue proper found in the hypodermis.
adipose tissue and areolar connective tissue
Identify the most superficial region of skin containing blood vessels.
papillary layer of dermis
Differentiate among basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma, with respect to malignancy and typical site of origin (i.e., cell type or epidermal layer).
- BBC: least malignant; originates from stratum basale
- Melanoma: most malignant; originates from melanocytes
- SCC: intermediate malignancy compared to above; originates from stratum spinosum
Differentiate between eccrine and apocrine sudoriferous glands.
- Eccrine: used for thermoregulation (evaporative cooling); merocrine secretion mechanism; widespread in skin (concentrated on palms, soles, and head)
- Apocrine: function not well understood; apocrine secretion mechanism; restricted to anal, genital, and axillary regions
What does it mean to say that sebaceous glands use a holocrine mode of secretion?
the complete breakdown/rupture of the glandular cells become sebum, the secretory product
What is cerumen?
ear wax, secreted by ceruminous glands
What specific type of tissue comprises the arrector pili muscle?
Where is the hair matrix located?
superficial to the hair papilla; the matrix produces the hair within hair follicle
Differentiate among the three types of cartilage and indicate primary sites where each is found in the body.
- Elastic: sites include external ear and epiglottis
- Hyaline: sites include costal cartilage; articular cartilage, fetal skeleton
- Fibrocartilage: sites include symphyses (e.g.; pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs)
Briefly summarize the six types of bone fractures described in lecture.
compression, comminuted, spiral, geenstick, epiphyseal, depression, or depressed fracture
Distinguish between osteoid and osteon.
- osteoid: uncalcified bone matrix produced by osteoblasts, which later hardens
- osteons: fundamental unit of compact bone
Distinguish between an open and closed reduction for bone repair.
- closed reduction is a non-invasive realignment of bone fragments or bone ends
- open reduction required opening the skin (surgery) to realign/rearrange bone ends to that healing occurs properly
Identify at least three hormones involved in promoting bone development and/or homeostasis.
growth hormone, thyroid hormone, estrogen, testosterone (others possible)
Identify the specific cell type primarily involved in bone deposition. What cells are primarily involved in bone resorption?
Differentiate between organic and inorganic components of bone matrix, and very briefly describe how specific osteoclastic secretions differentially break down each of these components.
- collagen and other proteinaceous material is organic; they are broken down by lysosomal hydrolases (enzymes)
- inorganic bone matrix includes hard calcium and phosphate salts; they are broken down by hydrochloric acid secreted by osteoclasts
T or F: Woven bone is another name for spongy bone.
T or F: Lengthening of long bones is generally accomplished through appositional growth of the epiphyseal plates.
Where are the precursor cells that give rise to osteoclasts produced?
red bone marrow
Differentiate between red and yellow bone marrow with respect to function and location.
- red bone marrow is found between the trabeculae in the spongy bone of certain long bone epiphyses and some flat and irregular bones (e.g., pelvis, cranium, vertebrae, and sternum)
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