47 terms

APUSH Chapter 1-5 Vocab

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mound builders
Early Indian people who built large earthen monuments to serve as burial sites and as sites for temples and religious ceremonies
Iroquois
A group of North American Indian people who were allies of the British during the American Revolution
Columbian Exchange
The process of transferring plants, animals, foods, diseases, wealth, and culture between Europe and the Americas
Black Legend
The idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease
Jamestown
The settlement in Virginia in 1607 that was the first successful colony of the English in North America
Starving Time
A period where the colonists of Virginia died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world
indentured servant
A person under contract for labor their labor in exchange for food, clothing, farm tools, and sometimes land
Edmund S. Morgan
An important figure in early American history who was a Professor of History at Yale University and argued that Virginians in the 1650s--and for the next two centuries--turned to slavery and a racial divide as an alternative to class conflict.
Puritans
A group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church
Plymouth Colony
A colony established in Massachusetts by the Pilgrims, who arrived on the Mayflower and later held the first Thanksgiving celebration
Massachusetts Bay Colony
One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony
"city upon a hill"
Phrase from John Winthrop's sermon in which he challenged his fellow Puritans to build a model, ideal community in America
Wampanoag
A member of the Algonquian people of Rhode Island and Massachusetts who greeted the Pilgrims
Roger Williams
A man who was banished from the MA Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas and later established Rhode Island
King Philip's War
he first large-scale military action in the American colonies, pitting various Indian tribes against New England colonists and their Indian allies.
Proprietary colony
A colony in which one or more private land owners retain rights that are normally the privilege of the state
New Netherland
A Dutch colony in North America along the Hudson and lower Delaware rivers
William Penn
An English Quaker whose " Holy Experiment" was persecuted because he was a Quaker
John Smith
An English explorer who helped found the colony of Jamestown, Virginia and was said to have been saved by Pocahontas
Powhatan
An lgonquian Indian chief who was the leader of Powhatan's Confederacy, an alliance of about 30 tribes that were located in eastern Virginia
Bacon's Rebellion
A rebellion led by a planter, against people who were friendly to the Indians. In the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia and was murdered by Indians
William Bradford
A pilgrim that lived in Plymouth Rock in 1620 and was chosen governor 30 times
Pequot War
An armed conflict between the Pequot tribe against an alliance of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Saybrook colonies with American Indian allies
Anne Hutchinson
A religious dissenter who challenged the principles of Massachusetts's religious and political system
Salem Witch Trials
A series of hearings before locals followed by county court of trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts
James Oglethorpe
An English soldier and founder of the colony of Georgia in 1733
Patroon
A person given land and granted certain privileges under the former Dutch governments of New York and New Jersey
Quakers
Members of the Religious Society of Friends who believed in equality of all peoples and to resist
the military
Middle Passage
The forced journey across the Atlantic Ocean that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600's
Gullah
African Americans who lived in the Lowcountry region of South Carolina and Georgia
Stono Rebellion
A slave uprising in South Carolina in 1739, in which twenty slaves robbed guns and ammunition from the Stono River Bridge along with killing civilians
Lord Dunmore's proclamation
A historical document issued by the royal governor of the British Colony of Virginia declaring martial law and promising freedom for slaves
task system
An organization within slavery which divided the labor established on a plantation and allowed the slaves more freedom and less supervision
gang system
An organization within slavery which divided the labor established on a plantation and allowed the slaves less freedom and more supervision
maroons
Escaped slaves who formed communities of runaways
colonization
A settlement founded in one country by people from another country
Magna Carta
A royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
English Bill of Rights
An act passed by Parliament in 1689 which limited the power of the monarch and established Parliament as the most powerful branch of the English government
Albany Congress
A conference that advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League
Treaty of Paris 1783
A treaty in which the British recognized the independence of the United States
Paxton Boys
A group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks and made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians
Proclamation of 1763
An English law that forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains and was enacted after gaining territory from the French at the end of the French and Indian War.
Petition of Right
A major English constitutional document produced by the English parliament that set out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing.
John Peter Zenger
An American journalist, printer, and publisher, born in Germany who set a precedent for establishing freedom of the press in America
Albany Plan of Union
A plan written by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 for all 13 colonies to unite and fight as one power to win the French and Indian War
Pontiac's revolt
A reaction to increased British control in North America, which brought unwanted white settlement into traditional Indian lands
Regulators
Organizations of citizens that formed to regulate governmental affairs and eventually operated the courts in some districts