107 terms

Phar., Essential, LoM ch.11

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Diuretics
used to promote the formation and excreation of urine in the treatmenrt of heart failure and hypertensin
Vasodilators
causes the blood vassel to relax or increase in diameter
Aldosterone inhibitors
used to inhibit the hormone that increases reabsortion of sodium and water and the relases of potassium that collects in the kidneys
ace inhibitors
blocks conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II which causes negative affect of vasocontriction and the increases of blood pressure
Beta Blockers
given to desensitize cell to the effect of epinephrine overstimulation
Coagulants
hasten the process of blood clotting
Inotropic drugs
used to increase the contractibility of the myocardium
Vasoconstrictors
used to stop superfcial hemorrhage, relive nasal congestion, raise blood pressure or increase the force of the heart action
Anticoagulants
increase the time to takes for blood to clot
Coronary artery disease
atherosclerotic deposite (fat containing substances)
Angioplasty
catheter with ballon is thraded into the coronary artery and expanded to compress the plaque and widen the lumen
Angina pectoris
conditon of chest pain after exertion
Myocardial infarction
death of myocardial tissue caused by the development of ischemia
Essential hypertension
most causes unknown
Malignant hypertension
accompanied by sudden onset of severe headache, blurred vision and dyspnea
Congective heart failure(CHF)
acute or chronic inability of the heart to pump enogh blood throughout the body
left-sided congestive heart failure
left ventricle does not empty
rigth-sided congestive heart failure
rigth venticle cannot empty, blood backs up in systemic circulation
Cardiomyopathy
noninflammatory disease of the cardiac muscle resulting in enlargement of myocardium and ventricular dysfuntion
Pericarditis
acute or chronic inflammation of the pericardium, the sac enclosing and protecting the heart
Myocarditis
inflammation of the muscular walls of the heart
Endocarditis
inflammation of the lining and valve of the heart
Cardiac tamponade
compression of the heart muscle and restriction of heart movement caused by blood or fluid trpped in the pericardial sac
Mitral valve prolapse(MVP)
occur when the valve cusps do not close completely
Cardiac arrhythmias(irregular heartbeats)
any deviation from the normal heartbeat,i.e the normal sinus rhythm
arteries
carry blood away from heart
veins
carry blood back to heart
capillaries
exchange blood at cellular level
emboli
traveling clot, clot of aggregate material (usually blood) that can lodge in a blood vessel end inhibit the blood flow
Aneurysm
wealkening and resulting local dilation of the wall of an artery
Pulmonary artery
a blood vassel that carries oxygen-poor blood from heart to lung
Systole
contraction phase of the heartbeat
Mitral valve
located between the left upper and lower chambr of the heart
Pericardium
saclike membrane surrounding the heart
Sinoatrial node
Sensitive tissue in the right atrium wall that begins the heartbeat
Coronary arteries
blood vessels branching from the aorta to carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
Cardiomyopathy
disease of the heart muscle
Phlebitis
inflammation of the vein
Stethoscope
instrument to measure blood pressure
Aneurysm
local widening of an artery
Cyanosis
bluish coloration of the skin
Ischemia
can lead myocardial infraction, blood is held back from an area, can causes by thrombotic occlusion of a blood vassel, may be a result of coronary artery disease, A,B,C,D All of the above
Angina
chest pain relieved with nitroglycerin
Hypoxia
deficient oxygen
Petechiae
small, ponpoint hemorrhages
Deep vein thrombosis
blood clot forms in a large lower limb vassel
Tetralogy of fallot
four separete congenital heart defects
Open
patent
Idiopathic
causes of essential hypertension
Digoxin
drug used to strenghthen the heartbeat
Serum enzymes
CK, LD, and AST
ECHO
hight-frequency sound waves are transmitted into the chest
Phlebotomy
incision of a vein
Endarterectomy
removal of plaque from the inner lining of an artery
Holter monitor
portable ECG daily activity
Aorta
largest artery in the body
Arteriole
small artery
Atriventricular bundle
specialized muscle fibers connecting the upper and lower heart chamber; bundle of his
Atrium
upper chamber of the heart
Carbon dioxide
gas released by body cells
diastole
relaxation phase of the heartbeat
Endocardium
inner lining of the heart
Oxygen
gas that enters the blood through the lungs
Deoxygenated blood
Blood lacking in oxygen
Electrocardiogram
record of the electricity flowing through the heart
Endothelium
Innermost lining of blood vessels
Murmur
an abnormal sound of the heart
Myocardium
muscular, middle layer of the heart
Normal sinus rhythm
60-100 bpm, regular heart rate
Pacemaker
specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat;sinoatrial node
AED
autometed external difribillator
AF
atrial fribillator
HTN
hypertension
BP
blood pressure
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CHF
congetive heart failure
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
MI
myocardial infarction
MVP
mitral valve prolapse
SA node
sinoatrial node
SOB
shortness of breath
VF
Ventricle Fibrillation
Septum
partition or wall dividing a cavity
Hemorrhoids
swollen, twisted veins in the rectal region
Hemangioma
tumor of blood vessels
Embolus
A FLOATING BLOOD CLOT
Ventricle
lower chamber of the heart
Arterial anastomosis
New connection between arteries
Arteriosclerosis
hardening of arteries
Artherectomy
removal of fatty plaque
Brachial artery
vessel carrying blood to the arm
Cardiomegaly
enlarged heart
Hypercholesterolemia
High levels of cholesterol (fatty ) in the blood.
Interatrial septum
wall between the upper chambers of the heart
Pericardiocentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid between the membranes surrounding the heart
Sphygomanometer
instrument used to measure blood pressure
Thrombolysis
breakdown of clots
Valvuloplasty
surgical repair of a heart valve
vasodilation
widening of the blood vessels
Vena cava
largest vein in the body
Angina
Chest pain
Arrhythmias
examples are flutter, fibrillator, and heart block
Claudication
blockage of arteries in the lower extremities due to atherosclerosis
Occlusion
closure or blockage (as of a blood vessel)
Palpitations
Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias
Patent ductus arterious
a small duct between the aorta and pulmonary artery, which normally closes soon after birth, remains open
Raynaurd disease
short episode of pallor and numbness in fingers and toes due to temporary constriction of arterioles