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122 terms

Endocrine theory 2

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Insulin
Increases the transport of glucose into a cell, stimulates the synthesis of proteins and fats, stimulates the formation of glycogen
Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone
control plasma levels of calcium
What is the stimulus for the release of insulin?
high plasma levels of glucose
Which of the following is characterized by low blood volume?
diabetes insipidus
Which disorder is caused by hyperthyroidism
Graves' disease
The neurohypophysis
is the posterior pituitary gland
Testosterone is best described as
virilizing
Which group is incorrect?
hormones of the anterior pituitary gland: ACTH, prolactin, TSH, oxytocin
Bronzing
is characteristic of chronic adrenal cortical insufficiency (Addison's disease)
TSH
is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
The person with _________ is most likely to receive insulin therapy.
hyperglycemia
"Sugar, Salt, and Sex" is descriptive of
cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone
Which of the endocrine glands is divided into anterior and posterior lobes?
Pituitary
Hypocalcemic
may be caused by a deficiency of PTH
Insulin
is secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans.
This gland secretes two hormones: one hormone elevates blood glucose and the second hormone decreases blood glucose.
pancreas
Catecholamines
include epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine.
Insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, and oxytocin
are hormones.
_______ regulates the amount of calcium in the blood and bones.
Parathyroid hormone
T3, T4, and calcitonin are
secreted by the thyroid gland
Which of the following is the response to low plasma levels of calcium?
secretion of PTH
What is the most likely effect of a deficiency of aldosterone?
low blood volume and hypotension
Oxytocin
is a neurohypophyseal hormone that stimulates the uterine muscle to contract, thereby assisting in labor
Myxedema is:
advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood
This gland secretes TSH, ACTH, Growth Hormone.
anterior pituitary gland
Which disorder is caused by an overactive adrenal gland?
Cushing's disease
A deficiency of insulin causes
hyperglycemia
Which of the following structures connects the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis?
portal capillaries
Identify: an excessive growth of hair in locations where hair growth in women is normally minimal.
hirsutism
Portal capillaries carry releasing hormones from the brain to the
anterior pituitary gland
Which of the following is least associated with the adrenal medulla?
sugar, salt, and sex
This gland secretes melatonin and is concerned with our biologic rhythms.
pineal gland
Iodine, Colloid, and Goiter refer to this gland.
thyroid
Insulin and glucagon
are secreted by the pancreas and are concerned with the regulation of blood glucose.
Cushing's disease is:
hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex
PTH
stimulates osteoclastic activity
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
are secreted by the neurohypophysis
Which of the following is least descriptive of the hypothalamus?
secretes ACTH, TSH, and gonadotropins
Lactogenic hormone
stimulates the mammary glands to make milk
Which of the following is not controlled by a hypothalamic-releasing hormone?
ADH
Excess secretion of epinephrine
elevates blood glucose
The islets of Langerhans
secrete insulin and glucagon
Which of the following steroids is an androgen?
testosterone
The islets of which endocrine gland regulate the levels of glucose in our blood?
Pancreatic gland
The adenohypophysis
refers to the anterior pituitary gland
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
are secreted by the gonads
Which of the following hormones are found within the hypophyseal hypothalamic portal capillaries?
releasing hormones
A disease that results in the enlargement of bones of the hands, feet, jaws, and cheeks is:
acromegaly
Which of the following is a function of parathyroid hormone?
It increases plasma levels of calcium
The adrenal Mudulla
is part of the "fight-or-flight" response
Growth hormone
is secreted by the adenohypophysis, is also called somatotropic hormone, stimulates growth of the musculoskeletal system
Enlargement of the thyroid gland
is called a goiter
Which endocrine gland requires iodine to produce its hormone?
Thyroid
Which of the following is most likely to cause the secretion of calcitonin?
elevated plasma calcium
Cretinism, Myxedema, and Graves' disease are all
disorders of thyroid gland function
Ketoacidosis is most related to
excess fatty acid catabolism
ACTH stimulates the
adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
The only hormone that lowers blood glucose is
insulin
This gland is associated with "sugar, salt, and sex."
adrenal cortex
Acromegaly is characterized by:
hyperfunctioning of the pituitary gland after puberty, adenomas of the pituitary gland during adulthood
Which one of the endocrine glands produces epinephrine and norepinephrine?
adrenal
Obesity
elevates blood glucose, antagonizes insulin, causes Na+ and water reabsorption, thereby increasing blood pressure.
The secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland suppresses further secretion of ACTH by the anterior pituitary gland. What is this interaction called?
negative feedback control
Which of the following is most descriptive of cAMP?
second chemical messenger
Which of the following best characterizes the stratum germinativum?
mitotically active
What substance is produced by the skin and is necessary for the absorption of calcium from the digestive tract?
vitamin D
The meaning of the word 'intradermal" is:
"within the skin"
Redness of the skin is:
erythema
Who or what is covered with vernix caseosa?
a fetus
A person sweats and becomes flushed while exercising in order to
lose heat
The sabaceous, apocine, and eccrine glands are
exocrine glands
What is the result of the contraction of the arrector pili muscles?
goosebumps
When obtaining a wound culture, it is important not to:
irritate the wound by inserting the swab too deeply, use cotton swabs to collect the sample, remove too much exudate
Both the mammary glands and ceruminous glands
are modified sweat glands
Antipruritics would be useful in treating which of the following conditions?
Herpes zoster
Ceruminous glands
secrete wax in the outer ear
The stratum germinativum and the stratum corneum are layers of the
epidermis
Which word is most descriptive of sudoriferous?
sweat
Yellow-colored skin is:
jaundice
Freckles and moles are due to an accumulation of
melanin
Which of the following has the poorest prognosis?
melanoma
When educating patients about the care of their skin, it is best to:
emphasize preventative measures that help promote healthy skin
A raised lesion is called a:
papule
What is the color of skin that is supplied by oxygen-poor blood?
cyanotic
Hives are called
urticaria
Which of the following is associated with tanning?
melanocytes
Which action is most likely to lower body temperature?
vasodilation
The surgical repair of the nose is called:
rhinoplasty
A freckle is called a:
macule
If the blood vessels of the skin dilate, the person appears
flushed
Which is not an appropriate action to take when treating frostbite?
Gently rubbing the affected area
What is a major preventative action that patients can take to avoid malignant neoplasms?
Use lotions with a high SPF
Nonshivering thermogenesis is accomplished by
metabolism associated with brown fat.
The hypodermis
is also called the subcutaneous layer
Blueness of the skin is:
cyanosis
What is the name of the yellow pigment found in skin?
carotene
What is one of the principal functions of the subcutaneous layer of the skin?
It provides insulation for the body.
Which of the following occurs as a result of the secretion of fetal sebaceous glands?
The fetus is covered by vernix caseosa
What is the effect of shivering?
increases heat production
Which statement describes a major advantage of topical over systemic drugs?
Less likely to cause side effects
Which gland is most likely to develop a blackhead or pimple?
sebaceous
Which of the following is a consequence of a congenital absence of eccrine glands?
inability to regulate body temperature
What is the name of the sweat glands usually associated with hair follicles and found in the axillary and genital areas?
apocrine
Radiation, Conduction, Convection, and Evaporation are terms that are concerned with
heat loss
Which glands are most responsible for body odor?
apocrine
Which type of gland secretes vernix caseosa in the fetus?
sebaceous
The part of the integumentary system containing fat as a stored energy source is the:
subcutaneous layer
Which statement does not describe a result of a full-thickness burn?
Severe pain immediately after the injury
Which highly contagious disorder is caused by a parasite?
Scabies
Which of the following substances makes the skin water-resistant?
keratin
The word that means the "study of the skin" is:
dermatology
Which highly contagious disorder is caused by streptococci and characterized by itchy vesicles and pustules?
Impetigo
Which of the following lies upon the subcutaneous layer?
dermis
Which of the following structures is avascular?
epidermis
A bruise is also known as:
ecchymosis
What is the layer that insulates the body from extreme temperature changes in the external environment?
subcutaneous
Which type of lesion is a sign of a partial-thickness burn?
Bulla
What is the name of the thickening of the epidermis that develops in response to constant pressure or irritation?
callus
Itching is called:
pruritus
Anticancer drugs often cause hair loss, a condition called
alopecia
Which of the following is associated with the conservation of heat?
Blood vessels constrict
A blister is called a:
bulla