Biology Chapter 5 Test
Terms in this set (33)
The synthesizing of a protein, through the combined processes of transcription and translation.
"Central Dogma of Molecular Biology"
The basics of DNA: replication, transcription, and translation.
When DNA copies and replaces one of its strands.
When a gene's code, or a segment of DNA is copied onto a synthesized RNA.
Replication, transcription, and translation in prokaryotic cells
All the processes take place in the cytoplasm
Replication, transcription, and translation in eukaryotic cells
Replication and Transcription take place in the nucleus, translation occurs in ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Differences between DNA and RNA
- Sugar in RNA is ribose, not deoxyribose
- RNA uses the nitrogen base uracil instead of thymine.
-RNA is a single strand.
Three types of RNA produced in transcription
mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
Used as a messenger, amino acid carrier, and ribosome-builder for protein synthesis.
Brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make growing protein with the mRNA codons.
Code to allow for translation and the synthesizing of a protein.
Makes up ribosomes
Complimentary Bases in RNA
C=G, but A=U, not T
The enzyme that temporarily unzips the DNA molecule in transcription, so that a certain gene on one strand of DNA can be transcribed onto a synthesized piece of RNA
Process of Transcription
- DNA unwinds with RNA polymerase at a specific gene, or segment of DNA code.
-Using only one of the unwound strands of DNA, a complementary strand of RNA is produced.
- RNA strand detaches and DNA reconnects.
interprets mRNA code, combined with tRNA's help to combine and build amino acids into polypeptides.
The RNA codes for _____ , which are the monomers and are bonded and built into _______ in translation.
amino acids, proteins
a sequence of three nucleotides that codes for an amino acid (carried by the tRNA, containing that codon's specific anticodon)
How many possible combinations in a codon?
How many amino acids could a codon combination code for?
20, because there are only 20 amino acids.
Do each combination of a codon code for a different amino acid?
No, some combinations code for the same amino acid.
First codon in the code sequence on the strand of mRNA. Signals start of translation for the ribosome.
Last codon in the code sequence on the strand of mRNA. Signals end of translation for the ribosome.
Importance of Code's universatility
-The code is the same in almost all organisms, suggesting that we all had a common ancestor.
- We can insert any gene one organism into another, and it will do its job in making a functional protein.
What is a ribosome made of?
rRNA, produced in transcription.
Where do amino acids come from?
They are picked up by tRNA, floating in the cell's cytoplasm.
Process of Translation
-mRNA binds to ribosome.
- Ribosome pulls mRNA strand through one codon at a time.
- Exposed codon attracts complementary tRNA anticodon with an amino acid.
- Amino acids bond together and tRNA goes to find another amino acid.
When a certain gene provides its code through transcription and translation, and makes a specific functional protein.
Can a gene be turned on/off?
Yes, this is controlled by the cell.
Certain genes are expressed in certain cells.
Complimentary of a certain codon in mRNA sequence. On tRNA.
Necessities to translate a codon into an amino acid
You need a ribosome to act as the site protein synthesis, and tRNA, which carries amino acids and anticodon that recognizes certain codons to attach to and build the protein.