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Unit 1: Colonization of North America
Terms in this set (47)
The leader of the Spanish march into the Aztec empire. Led an expedition to the Yucatan Peninsula to find new people who could be forced to work for the Spanish. After defeating the Aztec, Cortes ordered a new city to be built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan, He named the city Mexico, it became the capital of New Spain.
Jeronimo de Aguilar
A Shipwrecked sailor found by Cortes. Spoke the local language and could act as a translator. Helped Cortes in his conquest of the Aztecs.
One of the 20 woman Cortes obtained from the piece offering from the Aztec and could speak the language that was spoken farther up the coast. She translated for Aguilar and he translated the words into Spanish for Cortes. Cortes had Malinche baptized and gave her the name Marina. Became one of Cortes closest advisers.
Spanish meaning conquerer, the men who led the expeditions to conquer the Americans.
A Spanish army captain who landed in Peru and encountered the Incan Empire. Conquered the Incas by taking the Incan emperor Atahualpa hostage.
When each of Cortes Spanish comrades is given control over a group of Native American villages. The villagers had to pay their commissioner a share of the products they harvested or produced.
Council of the Indies
A council that advised the king and watched over all colonial activities. Was soon divided into smaller regions called viceroyalties.
Giovanni da Verrazano
Mapped the coastline from North America to Newfoundland, but found no sign of a passage through the continent.
The Northern route through North America to the Pacific ocean.
An explorer who discovered and mapped the St. Lawrence River. Wanted to found a colony in 1541 but couldn't because of the harsh winter.
Samuel de Champlain
A royal geographer who helped merchants colonize North America. Also helped establish a French colony in Acadia, today known as Nova Scotia.
Louis Joliet & Jaques Marquette
Set off in search of the Mississippi, they followed it as far as the Arkansas River.
Rene-Robert Cavelier de la Salle
Followed the Mississippi all the way to the Gulf of Mexico, becoming the first European to do so. Claimed the region for France, and he named the entire territory Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV.
A German monk who published an attack on the Church, accusing it of corruption. Marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. Was expelled from the Catholic Church in 1520. Went to find the Lutheran Church.
A christian who has reformed from the catholic church.
A revolution in the 1500's which separated the Catholic church into smaller protestant churches.
Suggested that neither kings nor bishops should control the Church. Argued that congregations should choose their own elders and ministers to run the Church for them.
The catholic church in England. Kept most of the organization and rituals of the catholic church.
People who wanted to purify the Church. Many Puritan ideas were accepted within the Anglican Church. Objected to the Catholic rituals.
When the landowners converted their estates into sheep farms by enclosing their land and evicting the tenants. Created thousands of poor, unemployed beggars who wandered from town to town looking for work.
Enabled the company to raise large amounts of money for big projects. Allowed English merchants to trade with, and colonize, other parts of the world without government financing.
Persuaded Queen Elizabeth to renew Gilbert's charter in his own name. Sent two ships to scout the American coastline.
A company founded by king James I. Sent three small ships-the Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery-and 144 men to Virginia.
The first permanent colony founded by the Virginia company. faced early problems such as not enough laborers, an inefficient council, and starvation. Eventually however thrived in the new land after the rule of John Smith.
A member of the colony's governing council, emerged as Jamestown's only strong leader. Began trade for Jamestown with local natives.
Local Natives who traded with the Jamestown settlers. Led by the Chief Powhatan.
Lord De La Warr
The new Jamestown governor who succeeded John Smith. Convinced settlers to stay in Jamestown and establish other towns along the James River.
The winter of 1609 to 1610. Colonists of Jamestown began eating dogs, rats, snakes, toadstools and horsehides. Only 60 settlers survived that winter.
Developed a new curing method for tobacco. Shipped 2,600 pounds of it to England. Although it was not as good as Spanish Tobacco, it sold for a good price. Soon the settlers began planting large quantities of it.
House of Burgesses
The representatives of the First Assembly.
Where new settlers who brought a share in the company or paid for their passage were granted 50 acres of Land. They were given 50 more acres for each family member over 15 years of age and for each servant they transported to Virginia.
Had been a member of the English Parliament until he converted to Catholicism. Found a colony where catholics could practice their religion. In 1632 King Charles granted him a large area of land northeast of Virginia. Baltimore named the new colony Maryland.
A colony that is governed by the proprietor, or owner any way he wished. The proprietor could appoint officials, coin money, impose taxes, establish courts, grant lands, and create towns. In most respects, he had a kings power.
Separatists were people who broke away from the Anglican Church to form their own congregation. Pilgrims were separatists who fled to Holland to escape persecution. Then in 1617, they decided to sail to America.
One of the colonies leaders, stated how "the Pilgrims went to work as soon as they arrived at Plymouth. After constructing a "Common House", the settlers built modest homes of frame construction and thatched roofs. Soon, however, a plague swept through the colony, spring only 50 settlers."
A Native American man who taught them about the pilgrims new environment. He directed the pilgrims how to set their corn, where to take fish and to procure other commodities." Also helped pilgrims negotiate a peace treaty with the Wampanoag people who lived nearby.
"City on a Hill"
When John Winthrop wanted Massachusetts Bay Colony to be a Puritan model society based on Christian principles. Puritans tried to live perfect lives and purify the world.
A wealthy attorney who wrote about the plymouth colony and the idea of "City on a Hill".
Massachusetts Bay Colony
A company that received a royal charter to create a colony in New England.
Because of England conditions steadily growing worse, many people left the country. By 1643 an estimated 20,000 settlers had arrived in New England.
A young minister, who refused a teaching position offered by congregation. Said "I would not officiate to an unseparated people". Was a strict separatist. Believed Puritans corrupted themselves by remaining as part of the Anglican Church. Declared that the land belonged to the Natives and that the king did not have the right to give it away.
A devout puritan woman. Began to hold prayer meetings in her home when she arrived in boston. her groups discussed sermons and compared ministers. Claimed that she knew which ministers had salvation. This caused much controversy.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
The first written constitution of the American colonies. Very similar to the Massachusetts constitution but had one exception: it allowed all adult men, not just church members, to elect the governor and the General Court.
Maryland Toleration Act
Granted religious toleration to all Christians in Maryland and was intended to protect the Catholic minority from the Protestants.
When Parliament invited Charles's son, Charles II, to take the thone.
A wealthy quaker who attempted to create a colony in the 1670s. Called his founded colony Pennsylvania where he would treat Natives justly in the area by signing the treaty of Shackamaxon.
A wealthy member of Parliament who was appalled to find that many people in England were in prison simply because they could not pay their debts. Wanted to find a new southern colony where all the poor could start over. Led the first settlers to the mouth of the savannah River in 1733.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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