Exam 2 psycology

where does transduction occur
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foveahighest acuitysteps of transduction-photopigment from rods and cones break down in response to light -action potential is triggered in neurons -ganglion cells carry signals to the branwhat is the optic nerve formed byaxonsprimary visual cortexarea in occipital lobes that receive input from hypothalamus (first place to receive visual input)ventral pathwaytemporal, the whatdorsal pathwayparietal, the whereamplitudeloudnessfrequencypitchnormal range of pitch20-20,000 Hzsteps in hearing1. sound wave cause eardrum to vibrate 2. vibration cause ossicles to vibrate 3.which then causes oval window to vibrate, creating wave 4.wave moves through basilar membrane 5. hair-cells on top of basilar membrane move up and down causing cilia to bend 6. the bending releases neurotransmitters which stimulates the auditory nervesemicircular canalssense space (balance) not hearinginterneural time differencedifference btw/ when sound reaches one and ear and the otherinterneural intensity differencedifference btw/ intensity of a sound at one ear and at the other (largest) from left to righttemporal codingworks best for low frequenciesplace codingworks best for high frequencieswhat does not project to the thalamusolfactionassociative learninglearn how stimuli, events, or behaviors are related (associating things)classical conditioninglearns to associate a conditioned response with a stimulusoperant conditioninglearns to associate a voluntary behavior with a rewardsecond order conditioninga type of learning where a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedurereinforcementstimulus that follows and response and increases chance of response happening againcontinuous reinforcementreinforcing the desired response every time it occurs (fastest)partial reinforcementreinforcing a response only part of the time (longer lasting)ratio schedulebased on the number of times the behavior occurs (reinforce every fifth time)interval schedulebased on amount of time that has passedFixed scedulepredictable (high rates of behavior)Variable schedulenon predictablesensory memorythe immediate, very brief recording of sensory info (high accuracy but short lived)short term memoryactivated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgottenlong-term memoryno limit to storage (high capacity)explicit memroymemories that were consciously aware ofimplicit memorynot aware of (bike riding)semantic memoryfatcs about the worldepisodic memorymemory for one's personal experiencesretorgrade amnesiainability to retrieve of memoriesanterograde amnesiaimpairment in forming new memoriesproactive interfenceold memories affect new onesretroactive interferencenew memories interfere with remembering old memorieswhere does transduction occurwithin sensory organs known as receptorswhat determines more intense stimulushigher rate of action potentialshow is difference threshold usually recordedpercentage