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44 terms

Chemistry Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
Chemistry
the study of the composition and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes
Chemical
any substance that has a definite composition
Organic chemistry
the study of most carbon-containing compounds
Inorganic chemistry
the study of non-carbon related substances
Physical chemistry
the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
Analytical Chemistry
the identification of the components and chemical composition of materials
Biochemistry
the study of the chemistry of living things
Theoretical chemistry
the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds
Basic research
research that is performed to gain knowledge
Applied research
research that is carried out to solve a particular problem
Technological development
research that typically involves the production and use of products that improve our quality of life
Matter
anything that has mass or takes up space
Mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
Weight
the gravitational force exerted on an object
Volume
the amount of three-dimensional space an object occupies
Atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains its chemical identity
Element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances
Compound
a substance that can be broken down into simpler stable substances
Molecule
the smallest unit of an element or compound that retains all of the properties of that element or compound
Extensive properties
properties that depend on the amount of matter that is present
Intensive properties
properties that do not depend on the amountof matter present
Physical property
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
Chemical property
a characteristic relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances
Physical change
a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
Chemical change
a change of one substance into a new substance
Chemical equation
a way to describe a chemical reaction using chemical formulas and other symbols
reactants
chemical substances you have at the beginning of a chemical reaction
products
chemical substances you have at the end ofa chemical reaction
Substance
matter that if broken down into smaller components, it no longer has the same properties
Mixture
when two or more substances are combined so that each substance keeps its own propertites
Element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom
Compound
a substance that cn be broken down into simpler stable structures and is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemicallt bonded
Heterogeneous mixture
a mixture that is not uniform throughout
Homogeneous mixture
a mixture that is uniform throughout
Solution
another name for a homogeneous mixture
Chemical symbol
represents the name of an element
Periodic table
a chart in which elements areorganized into groups based on similar chemicals properties
Groups or families
vertical columns in the periodic table
Periods
horizontal rows in the periodic table
Metals
elements on the left side and center of the periodic table that are malleale, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity
Nonmetals
elements on the right side of the periodic table that are brittle and are poor conductors of heat and electricity
Lanthanide and Actinide series
two sets of mtallic elements placed below the periodic table to keep the table from being to wide
Noble gases
Group 18 elements on the periodic table that are known for being unreactive.
Metalloids
elements that appear along the zigzag dividing line between metals and nonmetals and have properties between these two groups