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34 terms

Chapter 9 Burke Inflammation & Infection

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Abscesses
pockets of accumulated pus
Anabolism
process by which tissues are built up
Antibiotics
medications used to treat bacterial infections
Bactericidal
ability to kill microorganisms
Bacteriostatic
ability to inhibit growth of microorganisms
Broad-spectrum antibiotics
antibiotics that act against a wide variety of pathogens
Carrier
person who transmits an infectious disease but does not show any clinical manifestations
Catabolism
process by which body tissues are broken down
Cellulitis
localized infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue
Chain of infection
set of factors that must exist in order for an infection to develop
Colonization
the growth of bacteria on or in a body part
Diapedesis
movement of white blood cells from the circulation to the injury site
Endogenous pyrogens
chemicals, bacterial toxins, prostaglandins, and interleukin-1 that act on the hypothalamus to raise body temperature
Fistula
abnormal tubelike passage from one body cavity to another
Healthcare-associated (nosocomial) infections
infections associated with healthcare delivery in any setting
Immunosuppression
inability of the immune system to provide adequate immunity
Incision and drainage
procedure for draining pus from a wound
Infection
condition in which pathogenic organisms trigger the inflammatory process
Infectious disease
illness that is caused by a microorganism and can be transmitted to another person
Inflammation
nonspecific response that occurs when the body experiences any type of injury
Invasiveness
organism's ability to invade the body and cause disease
Leukocytosis
white blood cell count greater than normal
Leukopenia
white blood cell count below normal
Lymphadenopathy
swelling and enlargement of the lymph nodes
Macrophages
mature, large white blood cells that develop from monocytes
Mutation
change in an organism from its original form into a different form
Narrow-spectrum antibiotics
antibiotics that act against a few pathogens
Pathogens
microorganisms that are capable of producing disease
Phagocytosis
process by which phagocytes ingest harmful bacteria and dead tissue cells
Prophylactic
preventing an infection
Standard Precautions
guidelines to protect the health care worker and prevent transmission of infectious organisms to other clients
Superinfection
overgrowth of bacteria that occurs when antibiotics eliminate the body's normal flora
Transmission-based Precautions
guidelines to prevent spread of infection through the air, by droplet, and through contact
Virulence
power of a microorganism to cause an infection