50 terms

MOD HIST - Mid Term exam TERMS

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Renaissance
The time period between 1300 - 1600. The term means rebirth.
Humanism
An intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements.
Indulgence
It was a pardon. The pardon merchants sold these for forgiveness. Were meant to clear your sins. This made the Catholic Church very profitable!!!!!
Reformation
A movement for the religious reform. 1500-1600. Began from the protesting of the catholic religion and created their own religion called Protestant. Therefore the Catholic Church had to change or it would lose all their followers.
Protestant
CHRISTIANS who belonged to NON-CATHOLIC churches.
Anglican
Church of England, The religion that King Henry created when he broke away from the catholic church. The Protestant England Church.
Geocentric
The EARTH-centered view of the universe. GEO=EARTH
Scientific Revolution
A new way of thinking about natural world. Based on careful observation and willingness to question accepted beliefs.
Heliocentric
The SUN-centered view of the universe. HELIO=SUN
Enlightenment
AGE OF REASON - A new intellectual movement that stressed REASON, THOUGHT, and the POWER OF INDIVIDUALS
Salons
Large drawing rooms - where wealthly women entertained philosophers and artists during the Enlightenment.
Baroque
VERY ORNATE (INTRICATE) ART relating to or denoting style of European architecture. music, art of the 17th and 18th centuries that followed mannerism and is characterized by ornate detail.
Old Regime
A social and political system established in the Kingdom of France from approximately the 15th century until the later 18th century
Estates General
The legislative body in France until 1789, representing the three estates of the realm.
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Emigres
French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution
Napoleonic Code
It was the French civil code established under Napoleon. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go the the most qualified.
Legitimacy
It is the popular acceptance of an authority. Also refers to the restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated.
Coup d'etat
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
Enclosure
One of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers.
Crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Industrialization
Process by which manufacturing based on machine power becomes widespread in an area instead of handmade.
Entrepreneur
A person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business
Urbanization
Movement of people from rural areas to cities. Results in the physical growth of urban areas.
Stock
A share of ownership in a corporation.
Corporation
A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
Capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
Union
A worker association that bargains with employers over wages, benefits, and working conditions
Strike
Nonviolent refusal to continue to work until a problem is resolved.
Communism
It is an economy that has all factors of production owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all. Karl Marx believed in this idea.
Machiavelli
-wrote "The Prince" and handbook for Renaissance rulers.
A man who wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power, but he did not discuss the leadership in terms of high ideals. He stressed that the end justifies the means. He urged rulers to use whatever methods necessary to achieve their goals
Sir Thomas More
wrote "Utopia" - The book was about a perfect society with no flaws.
Johann Gutenberg
German who created the printing press. The printing press was an amazing creation because it made books a lot easier to produce and purchase. It helped spread knowledge because it made cooks cheaper and therefore lower class people could obtain them.
Martin Luther
He was German. He was known for his 95 THESES on what was wrong with the church. His main three ideas were salvation by faith, bible is only authority for christian life and everyone has a relationship with God.
Copernicus
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
Newton
scientist who explained the 3 laws of motion and Universal Law of Gravity which mathematically describes the force that causes objects to fall, planets to orbit the Sun, and the Moon to orbit the Earth; was not able to explain how this force acts over a distance; late 1600s; lived 1642-1727a1361; __
Bacon
Scientist and monk who stressed importance of scientific reasoning and methods
Galileo
Italian, telescope, in trouble for teaching Copernican system,
went to trial and revoked his teachings to avoid burning at the stake
Thomas Hobbes
known for SOCIAL CONTRACT - he thought all people were selfish and wicked and needed strong rulers.
John Locke
philosopher who believed people were reasonable and had the natural ability to govern themselves. He believed that people were born with 3 NATURAL RIGHTS - The RIGHT to 1.LIFE 2.LIBERTY 3. PROPERTY. He said governments only purpose is to protect those 3 rights.
Voltaire
French philosopher - writer who supported TOLERANCE, REASON, FREEDOM of RELIGION and FREEDOM of SPEECH
Rousseau
French Philosopher - wrote essays - said only GOOD GOVERNMENT was one FREELY FORMED by the PEOPLE
Catherine the Great
Ruled Russia - 1762 - 1796 - She was well-educated empress who read the works of philosophers and exchanged letters with Voltaire.
Louis XVI
He was King of France & Navarre from 1774 til 1791, after which he was subsequently King of French from 1791 to 1792 before his deposition and execution during the French Revolution.
Napoleon
He made huge impact on history of modern times. He was one of the worlds greatest military geniuses. Throughout 4 years 1795 to 1799 he rose from officer in army to master of France
Jethro Tull
invented the seed drill. This allowed farmers to plat seeds deep in the ground so the plants would last longer and be more healthy
James Watt
Also invented photocopier and was Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819) this led to people and supplies moving much quicker over water to other countries
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815) This allowed transporting goods and traveling across water much easier.
Adam Smith
"Wealth of Nations" He believed in natural laws that Government should not interfere. He was from Scotland.
Karl Marx
He believed in radical socialism (marxism) Wrote "The Communist Manifesto"