40 terms

Middle Ages terms

Chivalry The code of honorable behavior for medieval knights. S. Hofman ... serfs Workers who were tied to the land on which they lived. S. Hofman ... knights Warriors who fought on horseback. S. Hofman ... vassals A knight who promised to support & to be loyal to a lord in exchange for land. S. Hofman ... Charlemagne He lived from 742 to 814. He was known as Charles the Great, he ruled most of what is now France and Germany. He united tribes in Cenntral and Western Europe into 1 empire. He help…
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Political, Economic, & Social System
FEUDALISM!
Feudalism was a way to manage & defend a kingdom, make sure that the land was productive as each noble made sure that his fief and manor produced enough goods to be self-sufficient and provide enough taxes & goods for the king, and represented a stable social order that guaranteed a HUGE working class to produce everything needed by the warrior class & management class.
Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark
Sandinavia! Home of the feared invaders & raiders: the VIKINGS! northern Europe & Europe's largest peninsula
Chivalry
The code of honorable behavior for medieval knights.
serfs/peasants
Workers who were tied to the land on which they lived. Manual labor for both. (S) Unskilled/ (P) Skilled labor
knights
Armored warriors who fought on horseback for a specific Noble. Was a vassal of his noble. Supported by Serf/Peasant labor.
vassals
A knight or noble who promised to support & to be loyal to a higher power in exchange for land.
Fief
a large piece of land or something else of value exchanged for a vow of loyalty.
Charlemagne
He lived from 742 to 814. He was known as Charles the Great, he ruled most of what is now France and Germany. He united tribes in Central and Western Europe into 1 empire. He helped people see themselves as Europeans not as tribes. Christian.
Effects of William the Conqueror
Blended French and English cultures & language. Introduced a written legal code and trial by juries or official judges, not just the local noble. Official census of land and people for tax purposes. Norman knights became nobles & lords in England.
William the Conqueror
William led the last successful invasion of Britain. He brought feudalism in 1066 to Britain, when he defeated the English King Harold at the Battle of Hastings. He rewarded his knights for this victory with large estates of land in his new country.
King Arthur
British King of 5th and 6th century who defended Britain against Saxons. Britain's hero of romantic literature & folk tales. Represents CHIVALRY.
middle ages/Medieval
A period that lasted from about 450 until 1450..
monks
Religious men who lived apart from society in isolated communities. They spent their time in prayer, work. copying the Bible and meditation.
monasteries
Were a community of monks and were built all over Europe in the middle ages.
Feudalism
A system of promises that governed the relationship between lords & vassals.
manor
A large estate owned by a knight or lord.
oath of fealty or homage
A ceremony giving a fief to a vassal from a noble or monarch.
Bayuex Tapestry
The story of the Norman Invasion (1066) from the Norman point of view. It was created in the 1070's for a Norman Bishop Odo and its 210 feet long. It depicts over 1,515 different objects, animals, and persons and it reveals much about the time period.
Crusades
A call to arms by various Popes for an army of Christian knights to capture what Christians believed was their Holy Land from the Muslim Turks. 1096- ~1290
First Crusade
Only 'successful' crusade for European Christians, as opposed to the 3rd which ended in a truce or the 4th that was a TOTAL DISASTER and saw Constantinople, a christian city, attacked by Christian Crusaders!!! Oy vey!!!
Eleanor of Aqutaine
She was the most celebrated women of the medieval age. She first was queen of France and then England. She was the mother of King John and King Richard. She ruled England while Richard was on Crusades.
Richard the Lionhearted
King of England that led the 3rd Crusade. He was known for his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. Signed a truce with Saladin to end 3rd Crusade: Christians could visit Holy Land.
King John
King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced by his nobles to sign the Magna Carta. Signed in 1215 c.e. - Limited the power of the King for the first time.
Fleas
responsible for spreading the Bubonic Plague from Asia through Europe along trade routes. They bit rats & humans!
Bubonic Plague
Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people
Magna Carta
Contract signed by English nobles & king. Limited king's power of taxation & imprisonment. Led to the creation of parliament.
1215 c.e., England, lessened power of kings, increased power of nobles.
Habeas Corpus
"to have the body" - idea that king must formally charge a person with breaking an official law and/or have a trial, rather than just throwing someone in jail indefinitely & without reason.
Divine Right of Kings
belief during the Middle Ages that kings had inherited or gained their power because they were specially selected by God to be successful/powerful/in charge & that they were better than you!
monks
Men who devote their time to praying, studying, and copying, and decorating holy books (illuminated manuscripts) by hand
illuminated manuscripts
Page or book decorated by hand with elaborate designs, beautiful lettering, and miniature paintings. Represents Beauty/Culture during middle ages; RELIGIOUS, made by monks.
Excommunicate
To cast or kick out from the church
Heresy
Any belief that is strongly opposed to established beliefs, such as beliefs that went against the Christian church in the Middle Ages. A HERETIC is someone who commits HERESY.
Investiture
the right or power to appoint Bishops and other clergy positions
Lay Investiture
the right or power, of SECULAR AUTHORITIES rather than religious officials, to appoint clergy positions
Pope Urban II
called for European Christians to CRUSADE to the Holy Lands and reclaim the sacred places for Christianity. 1095 c.e. Started the Crusades.
Crusades
exposed common people, knights, lords, & kings to eastern culture and advancements that were not in Europe. Silk underwear instead of wool! Enough said! Well, there was more freedom, use of soap & sanitation, and opportunity for common people!!!
Holy Land
the goal or objective of the Crusades. Sacred to Christians (and Jews & Muslims...and there lies the problem!)
1347-1351 & 25% - 45%
the years and death rate of the Black Death in Europe. No wonder people questioned their religion and feudal leaders since sooooooo many people were dying so fast!
Longbow & Pike
simple weapons that could be taught easily and used effectively by PEASANT armies against KNIGHTS . Used during the 100 Years War and helped lessen the importance of knights, nobles, and therefore Feudalism. Gave more power to KINGS & large armies of paid PEASANTS... HELPED END FEUDALISM!
Pope Gregory & King Henry
two European leaders who 'battled' over authority/control/power. Typical men in a power struggle. Church reformer vs. Secular power. Church won because of Pope's power to EXCOMMUNICATE. shows how powerful the church was in M.Ages.