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AP Human Geography Chapter 11
Terms in this set (45)
The division of territory into smaller, manageable pieces.
Factories/Plants, Catholic Dioceses
The relationship among the state, the members of the state, and the economic activities contained within the state. States practice a mixed economy of both private and public sectors.
In a capitalist society, all the factories, firms, and offices responsible for producing goods and providing services that are not run by the state; includes all of the output produced by individuals working for themselves and privately owned businesses.
In a capitalist society, state-run functions including external relations, a system of adjudication or arbitration, and tax collection; includes all of the output produced by government at all levels.
A political economy that sought chiefly to enrich the ruler and the aristocracy and to maintain its armies; common in early modern states.
An economy in which a wide variety of private concerns are dominant and the state is far less involved in the production of goods and services.
The state assumes nearly all economic and social functions and tries to impose comprehensive control over economic activities.
Economies in which the government controls certain economic activities it considers key or appropriate to the public trust while leaving others in the hands of the private sector.
Theories of the State
Theories used by geographers and other scholars to discuss how states operate, particularly those within democratic, capitalist systems.
Pluralist Theory of the State
The view that the government is a neutral arbiter of all the different stakeholders. The government is elected by the people, and creates and enforces laws for the people.
A set of policies that favor minimal government interference in markets and promotion of free trade.
Elite Theories of the State
The view that governments, no matter what their political ideology or their constitution, are likely to support an elite class of people.
Marxist Theories of the State
Views of the state as a vehicle promoting capitalism and the capitalist class; also those who control production.
Authoritarian, or autocratic states
concentrate political power in a single individual.
Oligarchy (a few or clique)
The type of autocracy that has been associated with ideologies of fascism, communism, and religious fundamentalism.
In monarchies, feudal, or imperial styles of governments, some people were merely considered to be
Embodies the responsibilities and rights that some residents of a state posses.
Roots go back to Greece and Rome
"right of blood"; parents or lineage
right of soil"; birth, US
The case in which a person can be a citizen of two countries.
States in which nearly all of the sovereignty and power reside with the central government.
little independent authority; The U.K.
States in which each of the subunits is granted an independent constitutional authority, which defines its level of power, with the central state retaining greater sovereignty.
federation; subunits have some authority; The U.S.
A system in which sovereign states agree to abridge some of their independent powers in order to work together as a group, but each state retains a great deal of sovereignty.
former USSR, Canada
A place that can represent where the state and the dominant nationality emerged.
Political center and necessary component of every state. It may or may not be in the core region, and there may be more than one in a country.
Location can be controversial; About 50% of the cities are the largest of the state
The area around the capital city in a country.
The introduction of a new city that can serve as a capital or to designate an existing smaller city as the new capital city, rather than use existing cities to form a capital region.
A capital of a country that is selected as a compromise between sectional interests within the country. *Examples=Ottawa and D.C.
Capitals intended to help move a population toward less populated areas
In contrast to core areas, these regions are at the edge of political control, recently integrated into the state, culturally distinct, or exclaves.
Political subunits that are granted different powers than those of regular subunits.
Canada (provinces and territories), Indian Reservations
When a part of a state's territory is geographically separated by another country.
Part of or an entire country surrounded by another country. *Berlin, (West German enclave)
A special region, most common in the Americas, established as a territory for indigenous peoples. It usually represents just a fraction of the land that these people had previously occupied.
Areas of some countries that feel they ought to have a special status partly because of their cultural distinctiveness and are given more autonomy by their government.
All citizens have a say in all the issues pertaining to their community.
A complicated structure in which people elect representatives who are supposed to take the time to understand the issues and to represent their interests.
Citizens and Voting
Examines how people's political preferences are manifested in representation. One aspect of electoral geography lies in the interpretation of election outcomes.
Red and Blue States
(neighborhood effect) The geographical theory in which the characteristics of people in a local area help determine their political preferences; questions the overall importance of place in shaping people's attitudes or behaviors.
Manipulation in which some electoral districts vary in size even though they are equal in representation.
Example= US Senate
Single Member Plurality System
A system in which an entire country or political subdivision is divided into electoral districts, each of which elects only one representative.
most votes win; The US, Canada, the UK, and India
A system in which elections are designed such that the winner must have a majority of the overall votes. For example, the top two candidates from the first round of voting compete directly against each other in the second round of voting.
winner must have the majority; France and Australia
List System of Proportional Representation
A system in which each party draws up a list of candidates in each electoral district, and people tend to vote for the parties rather than for the candidates themselves.
can have more than one representative if a certain threshold is met; Israel and Italy
A system that combines both proportional voting, like a list system and a plurality system.
Manipulation that concentrates the support of one party or one group of people in one district and dilutes their support throughout a number of other districts.
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