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Psych of Development Exam 1
Terms in this set (42)
. Which domains of development do psychologists identify?
Physical, cognitive, and emotional & social.
What does holistic development mean?
The development of intellectual, mental, physical, emotional, and social abilities of a child.
What is continuous and discontinuous development? Provide examples for each.
Continuous: a process of adding more of the same skills that were there to begin with (gradual, change in quantity). Ex.) height.
Discontinuous: a process where new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times (stages, change in quality). Ex.) Piaget's stages of development.
How does development proceed (same or multiple courses)?
-One course even though stages are thought to be universal.
What are the universal patterns of development (explain individual differences (intelligence, personality)?
-Universal patterns in development (strongly influenced by heredity)
-Individual differences in development: personality and intelligence differences are strongly influenced by heredity.
Do children play an active or passive role in development (Examples)?
-Older view: children viewed as passive recipients of their environment.
-Current view: children interpret their experiences and often influence the experiences that they have. Children have more of an active world.
What are the concepts of nature and nurture and environmental factors that can influence development?
-inborn, biological. Based on genetic inheritance.
-the physical and social world (includes family, socioeconomic status, affluence/poverty, neighborhoods, schools, cultural context).
-begins after and before birth.
-socioeconomic status involves type of job parents have education, and income. It also affects what's expected to do like college/opportunities.
-20% of affluence children have mental health problems, or could have high expectations so more focused on achievements rather than personal well being.
-poverty is #1 factor that affects development. Increased risk for homelessness, mental health, physical appearance.
What is heritability and how is it measured?
Heritability estimates measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors. Obtained from kinship studies.
What is plasticity and stability? What's their role as an outcome of early experiences or genetics?
Plasticity: change is possible, based on experiences (nurture) but timing is important (sensitive periods of development). Ex.) foreign language should be learned during the sensitive period of development.
Stability: the degree of predictability and consistency of child's environment. Ex.) empathy tends to stay stable through the ages therefore the child will continue to be empathetic.
What are the three types of gene-environment correlations? What is niche picking?
Three types of are: active (when individuals select/modify their environments that are correlated with their genetic tendencies. Ex. niche-picking), passive (children inherit family environment correlating with their genotype), and evocative (individuals
due to genotype
, evoke reactions from other people).
Niche-picking: the idea that people choose their environments that complement their heredity.
What is methylation?
when chemical compounds attach to genes to enhance or stop things. Methylation is an example of how environment can alter the expression of genes.
What is resilience? What are the factors that contribute to resilience?
Resilience: the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development. Ex.) poverty or a parent w/ prenatal health issues.
Factors that contribute: personal characteristics (heredity/innate), a warm parental relationship, social support outside the immediate family, community resources and opportunities.
How important are early experiences?
They are super important. They have an enduring impact on development. Early experiences (nurture) may have a lifelong impact (ex. effects of abuse).
What are the contributions of psychoanalytic theory on child development?
-behavior is propelled by biological processes (unconscious drives) and is shaped by the influence of environment
-development proceeds in stages
-early experiences have an enduring impact on development.
What shapes of development form a psychoanalytic perspective?
What is the role of children from Skinner' s perspective (active or passive)? What did Skinner focus on?
Children are passively shaped by consequences of behavior. Environment determines the consequences: reinforcement or punishment.
What is reinforcement and punishment (+ /-)?
*Reinforcement: increases the likelihood of behavior.
-Positive reinforcement= give something child likes.
-Negative reinforcement= take away something child dislikes.
*Punishment: decreases likelihood of behavior.
-Positive punishment= giving child something they dislike.
-Negative punishment= taking away something child likes.
How is observational learning different from reinforcement and punishment?
Observational learning: the act of observing and modeling another individual's behavior, attitudes, or emotional expressions.
Reinforcement: is based on rewarding desired behaviors and/or punishing undesired ones.
Punishment: creates a situation in which any punishment-avoiding behavior (even standing still) is reinforced.
What is the focus of cognitive-developmental theories? How many stages does Piaget's theory have?
-The focus on both the understanding how children acquire knowledge and the understanding the nature of intelligence.
-Piaget's theory has 4 stages.
What does ethology emphasize? What are the concepts of imprinting and releasing stimuli?
-Ethology: is concerned with the adaptive or survival value of behavior its evolutionary history (imprinting, releasing stimuli).
-Imprinting: when the offspring identify their parental figure. This helps their development and survival.
-Releasing Stimuli: describes an instinctive behavioral sequence that is highly stereotyped and species-characteristic.
What is the ecological systems theory and what are the different layers of the ecological system?
-Ecological systems theory: is the idea that a child develops within a complex system of relationships affected by the surrounding environment.
-The layers are as follows from largest to smallest: chronosystem (events that happen that can influence the interactions b/w other systems), macrosystem (values, customs, laws), exosystem (extended family, friends and neighborhoods, workplace, community and health services), mesosystem (neighborhood play area, immed. family, child-care center or school), microsystem (the individual).
What is a correlational design and its characteristics? What does this design allow us to do?
-look at relations as they exist in the real world.
-they allow for prediction.
-they CAN'T tell direction of relationship and what causes it.
-pos-var incr, so does other/neg-var incr, other decr.
What is an experimental design and its characteristics? What does this design allow us to do?
-involve manipulating key factors than an investigator thinks are important.
-the manipulated factor is the independent variable; the behavior that's measured is the dependent variable.
-allow for cause and effect.
What are the main developmental research resigns and which are their advantages and disadvantages?
-Longitudinal study: advantages (answers stability questions) and disadvantages (practice effect; attrition, expensive, cohort effects.
-Cross-sectional study: advantages (convenience) and disadvantages (stability not addressed, cohort effects).
-Longitudinal-sequential study: combination of both types of studies.
What are the major processes that occur in each of the prenatal stages?
Three periods occur:
-Germinal period: weeks 1-2, begins when egg is fertilized in fall. tube, after 4 days the zygote consists of about 100 cells resembles a hollow ball (blastocyst), cell division and differentiation continue, implantation of blastocyst, development of the amnion/chorion/and placenta.
-Embryonic period: weeks 3-8, differentiation of organs and organ systems occur, central nervous system/internal organs; muscles; and skeleton begin to form.
-Fetal period: week 9 to end of pregnancy, 9-12 weeks, organs; muscles; and nervous system begin to organize, external genitals are well-formed but not differentiated, second trimester (vernix and mother can feel movements).
How do cells differentiate during the germinal period? Embryonic period?
Split into two.
What is the fetus capable of doing before birth?
Responsiveness to external stimulation increases (movement, hearing, taste), pain sensation, Sensory adaptation and discrimination, ability to remember and learn (tastes, mother's voice).
How do nutrition, stress, and mother's age affect prenatal growth?
Nutrition (adequate amount of food, protein, vitamins, & minerals): spina bifida is caused by inadequate levels of folic acid, iron deficiency harms brain cell growth and results in memory problems that persist into the preschool years.
Stress: Stress hormones (cortisol) cross the placenta, causing a dramatic rise in fetal heart rate and activity, children are more upset than their peers in novel or challenging situations, maternal emotional stress predicts anxiety/short attention span/ anger/ aggression/ and overactivity among young children, stress-related prenatal complications can be greatly reduced when mothers receive support from family members and friends.
Age: American mothers are getting older, risks associated with maternal age.
How do teratogens influence prenatal development?
Effects of teratogens: dose, heredity (organism genotype; e.g., effects of thalidomide), specialized effect, other negative influences, age of gestation, sleeper effect.
How do teratogens attack the growing fetus?
May affect part of the fetus's body as they are forming.
What are the effects of teratogens included in class slides?
Drugs, tobacco, alcohol, infectious disease, radiation, and pollutants.
What happens during each of the 3 stages of labor?
Stage 1: dilation and effacement (transition phase is climax).
Stage 2: delivery of the baby.
Stage 3: birth of the placenta.
What are the birth complications presented in the class slides and how are they linked to later development?
• Anoxia: Oxygen deprivation at birth.
• Can lead to brain damage or later cognitive, language problems.
• Cephalopelvic disproportion.
• Irregular position (breech, transverse).
• Severe birth complications along with adversity are linked to aggression, violence, and schizophrenia.
Why is infant mortality so high in the U.S?
1. Birth defects.
2. Preterm birth and low birth weight.
3. Maternal pregnancy complications.
4. Sudden infant death syndrome.
5. Injuries (e.g., suffocation).
What is the Apgar scale? What is it used for?
Apgar assessment: a health screening test that assesses heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone, color (score 0-2). It is also performed twice (5 minutes apart).
How is prematurity defined? What are the consequences of prematurity?
-Prematurity: when baby is born weeks before their due date. Also, may be appropriate weight for length of pregnancy.
-Small-for-Date • May be born at due date or preterm • Below expected weight for length of pregnancy (growth restriction results in LBW)
-Consequences: LBW (< 3.3 lbs) are at higher risk although prenatal and child health care are protective factors, infant mortality is relatively high in the United States compared to other industrialized countries, associated with LBW and SIDS.
What is a reflex? What types of reflexes did we discuss in class? When and why do reflexes disappear?
-Reflexes: are an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation.
-Types: survival reflexes (rooting and sucking), protective reflexes/evoke interaction from caregivers (moro, grasping), foundational reflexes (stepping).
-Reflexes disappear in the early months of life as brain develops more voluntary control.
What are the newborn states of arousal?
-Sleep: regular (NREM) sleep, irregular (REM) sleep, drowsiness.
-Awake: quiet alertness, waking activity and crying.
What are the different types of baby cries? Why do babies cry? What do we learn from baby cries?
-Babies cry because it's a way of communication to let you know something is wrong.
-Types of cries: abnormal (shrill and short), hungry: cry will start with a whimper, then they'll dial up the volume,
upset: loud cries that seem to come out of nowhere are usually because they're upset, overstimulated or overtired: if there is too much of a hubbub around them, such as excessive noise, activity, or movements, they may cry as a way to release the tension it's causing, in pain: cries of pain or discomfort begin as a high-pitched, intense wail, followed by very loud crying.
What is the frequency of sleep in newborns and how do sleep cycles change over time? What is SIDS and how can we prevent it? Why do newborns sleep a lot?
-Babies sleep patterns are organized and structured. 2 states: REM and NREM (non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Children spend more time in REM sleep than usual.
-SIDS: is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby less than a year old. Can be prevented by...putting babies to sleep on their backs, remove soft bedding, and quit smoking and taking drugs.
What is the state of smell, taste, and touch in newborns? What are the hearing and visual abilities of newborns?
-Reflexive response to touch, sensitive to pain, prefer sweet tastes at birth, quickly learn to like new tastes, display odor preferences from birth, can locate odors and identify mother by smell.
-Can hear a wide variety of sounds at birth, prefer complex sounds to pure tones, sensitive to voices, and biologically prepared to learn language, sight is the least developed of senses at birth, unable to see long distances or focus clearly, scans environment and tries to track interesting objects.
What are the changes that take place as couples transition to parenthood? What is the frequency of postpartum depression, what are the effects of postpartum depression on child development, and what are some predictors of postpartum depression?
-Physiological changes: oxytocin causes the breasts to "let down" milk, heightens the mother's responsiveness to baby, fathers also show hormonal changes that are associated with positive emotional reactions to infants, but a favorable parent-infant relationship does not depend on immediate bonding.
-Gender roles may become more traditional.
-Sharing caregiving predicts greater happiness and sensitivity to the baby.
-Postponing parenthood until the late twenties or thirties eases transition.
-Depression: 1 out of 9 women will experience postpartum depression, 10% of fathers also report depression 3-6 months after the birth of a child, parental depression can have serious negative effects on all domains of child development, protective factors, early treatment is vital.
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