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History Final Exam
Terms in this set (260)
Lewis and Clark's expedition immediately followed...
The Louisiana Purchase
Who was known to answer his own door in his slippers because that's just the sort of thing the president of a republic should do
What device by Eli Whitney helped reinvigorate slavery in the 1790s?
In what war did the British burn Washington D.C.?
War of 1812
Why did Thomas Jefferson hesitate to purchase the Louisiana Territory from the French?
Elite women in Washington began to play important roles in informal politics during what First Lady's administration?
During the Haitian Revolution, who led what could have been the nation's largest slave rebellion if only it hadn't rained?
How did the "Era of Good Feelings" get its name?
All presidential candidates ran as Republicans after the death of the Federalist party
John Marshall changed the way the Supreme court worked in what way when he wrote his opinion in the case Marbury vs. Madison?
Established judicial review
William Henry Harrison led forces which destroyed Phrophetstown in what famous battle?
Battle of Tippicanoe
The name of the route displaced Cherokees took from Georgia to Oklahoma?
Trail of Tears
The nineteenth century movement to decrease American consumption of alcohol
Why did Andrew Jackson veto the re-chartering of the Bank of the United States?
He believed it unfairly favored the wealthy
The most radical reform movement of the nineteenth century and the one which drew the most violent opposition
In 1832, the Supreme Court upheld the territorial sovereignty of the Cherokee nation, but the Cherokees were forced to move to Oklahoma for what reason?
Jackson refused to enforce the decision
John C. Calhoun authored this controversial doctrine in response to the Tariff of Abominations
People who became involved in the radical abolition movement also came to support what other radical rights movement?
Woman's Rights Movement
What element of the Second Great Awakening led logically to the support of reform movements?
Ethic of Perfectibility
Why did the transportation revolution help to facilitate the market revolution?
It decreased shipping costs and allowed for the development of larger factories
Andrew Jackson won the popular vote in the election of 1824 but lost the election. He blamed this loss on a "corrupt bargain" between Henry Clay and...
John Quincy Adams
The compromise named for what state helped contain sectional tensions for 30 years after 1820?
Most nineteenth century Northerners rejected abolitionism for what reasons?
Fear of political upheaval
What doctrine said that people who settle in a territory should be able to choose if the territory is slave or free?
What name was given to the territory the United States acquired from the Mexican-American War?
Non-radical nineteenth century efforts to end slavery relied on what technique?
One common way slaves resisted slavery
Interfering with production
Most people in the North wanted to see ___________ happen to slavery
Limited to places where it already existed
The largest leave uprising in the antebellum period
Nat Turner's rebellion
Provisions of the Compromise of 1850
Popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico
Fugitive slave act
Slave trade outlawed in DC
Why did people who supported slavery in the nineteenth century usually say slavery was a good thing?
Africans like children
Allowed all white men to participate in republic
What mid-nineteenth century invention allowed for almost instantaneous communication over large distances?
What religious group traveled all the way to Utah in hopes of practicing their religion without governmental interference
What form of transportation could carry people as far in an hour as Conestoga wagons could travel in a day
The most valuable American export in the half century before the civil war
This group of people typically made money on gold rushes
Corporations with mining equipment
Why did the US hesitate to annex Texas?
Slavery and war with Mexico
People who advocated in this doctrine believed that the West should be free from slavery and, in many cases, from all African-Americans
Land was free for the taking of settlers could only get to what coastal US territory?
What is the Donner Party infamous for?
The Wilmot Proviso would have done this if only it had passed in Congress
Outlawed slavery in the Mexican Cession
General Andrew Jackson became famous for what decisive victory over the British in the War of 1812?
Battle of New Orleans
How did Northern textile mills help to link the Northern and Southern economies?
Relied on Southern cotton
What movement advocated immediate, complete, and uncompensated freedom for slaves in two words?
Workers became attuned to precise clock time as a result of what revolution?
Who lost the War of 1812?
The Indian leader who called for a pan-Indian alliance in which all Indian lands were held in common; he was also an important British Ally in the War of 1812
What may have been the production of South Carolinians' imagination?
Demark Vesey Conspiracy
In 1833, South Carolina nullified this offensive tax and almost got invaded by the US navy
Tariff of Abominations
The common belief that Indians were becoming extinct in the nineteenth-century US relied on this dubious criterion
Indians must look like Indians
After this meeting, during which New Englanders discussed the possibility of secession, the Federalist Party never competed in another national eleciton
What nearly destroyed the Virginia Colony?
The Massacre of 1622 (Anglo-Powhatan War)
Why did Richard Hakluyk recommend colonizing North America?
Saving the English poor
Undermining Spain's power
Anne Hutchinson's heresy was so threatening to Massachusetts Bay leaders because...
Her authority threatened normative gender relations
Her ideas seemed to undermine motivations for living a godly life
Why was the Mayflower Compact drawn up?
The pilgrims drifted off course and landed where they had no jurisdiction
Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic Ocean looking for
A water route to Asia and all its desirable goods
Representative government was instituted in Virginia in order to...
Make the colony more attractive to potential colonists
The backers of the Roanoke colony envisioned what kind of society?
When did James I seize control of Virginia?
After a royal investigation into the massacre of 1622
Allowed for 50 acres to be given to anyone who transported himself or another to Virginia
The headright system
In the early seventeenth century Virginia planters relied more heavily on indenture servitude than on slavery because....
It was more economical
When English colonists arrived at Jamestown they encountered...
A powerful Indian confederacy
"When the English and Algonquian peoples of seventeenth century New England went to war in 1675, they devastated one another. In proportion to population, their short, vicious war inflicted greater casualties than any other war in American history..." In this quote Jill Lepore is talking about what?
King Philip's war
Why did the first attempt to colonize Roanoke fail?
The expedition consisted of soldiers who were not skilled in diplomacy
Early Spanish colonization in the Americas resulted in...
Massive inflation in Europe
Half of Virginia's first settlers died within four months of setting foot in Virginia because of
Malnutrition and disease
English colonists began arriving in Virginia in large numbers after...
John Rolfe demonstrated that Vriginia's soil could grow marketable tobacco
The 1621 event, now memorialized as the "First Thanksgiving" was..
A harvest festival shared by Plymouth colonists and Wampanoag Indians
The murder of John Sassoman, a literate Indian who had embraced Christianity, sparked what?
King Philip's war
The Spanish were able to conquer the Mexica (a.k.a. Aztecs) because...
Many of the nations previously conquered by the Mexica sided with the Spanish.
Which goal did Walter Raleigh consider most important for the Roanoke colony?
John Smith rose to power in Jamestown for what reason?
By 1608 he was the only member of the council still alive and in Virginia
After 1660, Virginia servants who survived their period of indenture had trouble making a living because...
Land had become scarce
What was the Halfway Covenant?
An attempt to keep the grandchildren of Massachusetts Bay's first settlers under church discipline;seen as a sign of diplomacy by some
When did Virginia first link race and slavery?
During Bacon's Rebellion when they passed a law saying that all Indians captured in the war should be enslaved
Merged the Northern colonies in to a single administrative unit
The Dominion of New England
In the wake of Bacon's rebellion, a series of new laws raised the status of poor white men in an effort to...
Encourage poor and unfree white men to identify with wealthy whites rather than black slaves
Why was slavery often a fluid institution in the early seventeenth century?
The slaves exported to the English colonies were often very cosmopolitan people who understood how to work the legal system
Why were early Virginians unable to feed themselves?
The Virginia Company sent gentlemen and craftsmen to Jamestown; they believed that growing food was not heir job
The first representative assembly in the British American colonies
The house of Burgesses in Virginia
Indentured servitude helped to pave the way for slavery in early Virginia because...
It got masters used to the idea of buying and selling men and women
In 1691, the Virginia legislature outlawed interracial marriage in an effort to...
Solidify a system of race-based slavery
Prince Henry the Navigator sponsored technological innovation in order to allow Portuguese sailors to
Sail around Africa in order to trade in Asia
The first and second Roanoke colonies were settled in the same area because...
The ship's pilot refused to take the colonists farther than Roanoke because he and his crew wanted to go privateering
The belief that God had determined from the beginning of time who would be saved and who would be damned
Practiced a more strict separation of church and state then was the case in England
Massachusetts Bay Puritans
A slave woman who was given to Hernan Cortes and who provided valuable services as an interpreter
Relations between colonists and Indians in New England were generally less hostile than those between colonies and Indians in the Virginia/Chesapeake because...
The native american population density was relatively low in coastal New England because European diseases had reached the area before the firs English settlers did
The witchcraft "outbreak" in Salem in 1692 resulted in an unusual number of arrests, convictions, and executions, in part, because...
The court granted stays of execution to people who confessed to witchcraft and named other supposed "witches"
New England colonists overthrew the Dominion of New England and jailed Edmund Andros in the wake of which English event?
The Glorious Revolution
Throughout the last half of the seventeenth century, many new Englanders believed that New England was falling away from its holy purposes, because...
The population increased ore quickly than church membership
The pilgrims were known as "separatists" because they wished to separate from..
The English Church
Who led the Spanish and allied forces which overthrew the Mexica/Aztec Empire?
Settlers in the first Roanoke Colony abandoned the colony shortly after...
A series of conflicts with the Roanoke Indians which culminated in Wingina's murder
Which of the following Indian civilizations used writing before contact with Europeans?
Investors in the Virginia Company expected to make money at Jamestown by..
Exploiting any natural resources available
What was the primary way in which church and state were connected in early Massachusetts bay?
Only male church members who owned property were allowed to vote for colony-wide offices
Why did mortality rates fall dramatically while John Smith was in charge of Jamestown?
Smith forced the colonists to farm
Bacon's Rebellion was sparked by
A relatively commonplace conflict between a group of Doeg Indians and English frontier settlers
One way in which indentured servitude in Virginia differ from servitude in England
Their masters used them as stakes in a card game
Name one of the reasons that King Philip gave John Easton for going to war
Colonists kept encroaching on Indian land
Name one of the goals James II was trying to fulfill by instituting the Dominion of New England
One reason that English poverty was so common in the sixteenth ad early seventeenth centuries
When it was initially settled, the Jamestown colony was disproportionately populated by people of what occupation?
List in order:
"Starving Time" in Virginia
John Smith takes control of the Jamestown colony
Massacre of 1622
2, 1, 3
List in order:
First Settlement of Plymouth
First Settlement of Jamestown
First Settlement at Roanoke
3, 2, 1
List in order:
Elizabeth I gives Raleigh a patent for Roanoke
Spanish conquer the Aztecs/Mexica
Prince Henry sponsors navigational technology
3, 1, 2
List in order:
King Philip's War
Glorious Revolution in England
James II institutes the Dominion of New England
1, 3, 2
List in Order:
First Africans arrive in Virginia
Virginia House of Burgesses prohibits interracial marriage
1, 2, 3
American colonists in the 1770s were reluctant to rebel against Great Britain because...
They feared that breaking with the king would lead to the breakdown of other basic hierarchies
The breakdown of diplomatic relations between France and the United States during John Adams's administration resulted in...
An undeclared naval war between the US and France in the Caribbean
in the colonial period, slavery existed in...
Every British mainland colony
Lord Dunmore, the royal governor Virginia, attempted to prevent rebellion in his colony by...
Offering freedom to able-bodied male slaves who belonged to rebels and were willing to fight with the British army
The French allied with the American revolutionaries following the...
Battle of Saratoga
Alexander Hamilton promoted plans for a national bank because...
He wanted to tie the interests of the wealthy to the national government
What did the Proclamation of 1763 proclaim?
That colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains (and so could not settle in the Ohio Valley)
What happened to the population over the course of the first half of the eighteenth century?
The population of the colonies quadrupled due to immigration and natural increase
A religious revival which swept through the colonies in the 1730s-60s
The Great Awakening
What did the consumer revolution do in the eighteenth century?
It gave diverse American colonists a common experience (and later a language of protest) as they began to import British goods on an unexpected scale
The First continental congress met to...
Organize a colony-wide response to the Coercive Acts
Introduced the idea that state legislatures could nullify unconstitutional acts of the federal government within their own borders
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
The Coercive Acts differed from all of the other acts imposed on the American colonies during the pre-Revolutionary period in that...
They were designed to puritive
Most Indian nations sided with the British during the American Revolution because...
They believed that the British were more likely to win
The Albany Plan was...
Benjamin Franklin's unsuccessful plan to unite the colonies for the purposed of defense during the French and Indian War
George Washington was able to unite various regions of the new United States because...
He was a Southern slave owner who never spoke publicly about Slavery
By the eve of the American Revolution, the colonies as a whole...
Had gone from being a place in which some pole held slaves toeing one which depended heavily on slavery for its wealth
George Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation in 1793 because he was trying to do what?
Avoid war with both England and France
What was a continuation of the French and Indian War?
Pontiac's war helped convince the British crown to...
Keep colonists and Indians as far from each other as possible following the French and Indian War
Prompted the Proclamation of 1763
Why did all American colonies practice some form of religious toleration in the eighteenth century?
For practical reasons
The way in which George Washington shaped the image of the US Presidency was important because...
The Constitution provided little guidance of the role of the President, and Washington's behavior set a precedent for balancing the dignity of leadership wit the needs of a republic
Rose out of the tensions created when British troops occupied Boston
The Boston Massacre
Made expressing political dissent a crime
The Alien and Sedition Acts
James Madison objected to Alexander Hamilton's proposal for the federal government to "assume" the states' Revolutionary War debt because...
He believed that the plan was unconstitutional and would illegally increase the power of the federal government
American colonists throughout the eighteenth century understood liberty to be...
Locked in a constant struggle with power
The Tea Act was intended to...
Bail out the East India Company
In July of 1775, the Second Continental Congress did these two seemingly contradictory things
They appointed George Washington to be the head of the Continental army and sent the Olive Branch petition to King George III
Occurred when three French agents demanded a large bribe from American commissioners in order to reestablish diplomatic relations between the two countries
The XYZ Affair
Were intended to keep wealth within the British Empire by limiting the ways in which colonists were allowed to trade
The Navigation Acts
Why were the American colonists objected to the Townsend Acts?
They were intended to raise revenue rather than regulate trade
Gradual Emancipation laws, passed in several states after the American Revolution allowed what?
States to phase out slavery without actually freeing anyone who was enslaved when the legislation was passed by freeing the unborn children of slaves
What happened during the Townsend Act boycotts?
American women increased their production of homespun cloth although they could not produce enough to replace imported British fabrics
At the end of his term in office, President John Adams narrowly averted...
War with France
Declared that Parliament had the authority to tax and legislate for Americans in all cases whatsoever (despite the repeal of the Stamp Act)
The Declaratory Act
The destruction of the tea in Boston Harbor in 1773 resulted in...
The Coercive (Or Intolerable) Acts
Why was Jay's Treaty extremely unpopular in the US?
The American delegates' weak bargaining position led to a treaty which ignored the issues Americans cared about most
The Twelfth Amendment (1804) to the constitution tacitly recognized the importance of political parties by...
Providing separate ballots for the offices of President and Vice President
Most early Americans thought political parties were bad because...
Americans generally lacked the concept of a loyal opposition and identified parties as special interest groups which subverted the good of the whole
Provided the new federal government with the opportunity to prove that it could subdue domestic insurrections
The Whiskey Rebellion
According to the logic of republican theory, who should be able to vote?
Anyone with enough property to have a stake in the stability of the government and the capacity for independent judgement
Black soldiers in the Revolutionary War were initially..
Prohibited from serving the Continental army but served later in the war
Shay;s Rebellion helped spark...
The Constitutional Convention because many believed the country needed a stronger federal government
Prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territories
The Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Where did Immigrants to British North America in the eighteenth century come from?
Africa, Europe, and Great Britain, but only a small minority of them were from England
Why did Parliament pass a new tax on American trade in the 1760s?
The Seven Years War had doubled Britain's national debt and Parliament thought the Americans should help pay for it
The supreme court case which established the pracitce of judicial review (by which the Supreme court rules on the constitutionality of laws)
Marbury vs. Madison
The Stamp Act provoked widespread popular resistance because...
It was a direct tax which affected most colonists
Why is Elizabeth Freeman significant?
She initiated a court case which helped to undermine slavery in Massachusetts
The first battle of the Revolutionary War was sparked by...
Thomas Gage's attempt to seize the arms and ammunition stored in Concord, Massachusetts
Patrick Henry introduced the Virginia Resolves (1765) which...
Questioned the right of Parliament to directly tax the colonies
The first amendments to the US Constitution are also known as...
The Bill of Rights
Name one advantage the Patriots had over the British Army in the Revolutionary War
Help from France
What is the term for a person who believes that the federal government should have only those powers expressly granted to it in the Constitution?
Name one important power the central government under the Articles of Confederation lacked
They could not tax
In the Early Republic, members of the Democratic-Republican party usually favored close ties with which European country
List one British concession in the Treaty of Paris (1783) other than recognizing American independence
Under the Constitution as originally ratified which office was the only one to be directly elected by the people?
House of Representatives
List in order:
Battle of Yorktown
Battle of Lexington and Concord
Battle of Saratoga
3, 1, 2
List in order:
Quasi-War with France
3, 2, 1
List in order:
2, 3, 1
List in order:
Troops stationed in Boston
2, 3, 1
List in order:
George III declares colonies in open rebellion
Battle of Lexington and Concord
Declaration of Independence
2, 1, 3
List in order:
US Constitution ratified
1, 3, 2
List in order:
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Alien and Sedition Acts
Thomas Jefferson elected President
2, 1, 3
Although most Northerners opposed the expansion of slavery, most did not embrace...
Built specifically as a meeting place to discuss abolition and other matters "not of an immoral character"
Pennsylvania Hall (1838)
First meeting at Pennsylvania Hall caused...
Between 1834 and 1838, there were over 100 serious outbreaks of..
Mob violence against abolitionists
Who formed the backbone of most moral reform movements including abolition?
Drew on their experiences as the daughters of Southern slaveholders to critique the institution of slavery for Northern audiences
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
The age of the "common man"
The Jacksonian period
Second Great Awakening appealed primarily to....
The middle class
What were largely middle-class reforms?
Why did working class Northern whites not support abolition?
Because the relative shortage of workers kept wages higher
By 1860 how many Americans had gone West?
How many acres were granted to a single man moving to Oregon?
How many acres of land were granted to a married man in Oregon?
Beginning in 1848, the discovery of gold in California and elsewhere in the Far West sparked...
Where did the gold rush miners come from?
Easter US, Mexico, South America, and China
Who made money during the gold rushes?
Very few miners
Those who provided support services (hotel and alcohol)
Later corporations with the equipment to mine deep
Grew out of series of visions experienced by a teenage boy in New York
Who started Mormonism?
-Ancient Christian civilization in the New World
-Predicted the coming of an American prophet who would usher in the Second Coming
How did non-Mormons treat Mormons?
Perceived them as blasphemous and drove them out of state after state
Where did the Mormons settle?
Why did US troops invade Salt Lake City and occupy it? And when?
Because Mormons were practicing polygamy; 1857
Utah statehood was delayed until...
By 1850, the US had as many miles of railroad track as...
The rest of the world combined
Who was the telegraph patented by?
Morse's main contribution to the telegraph
Which state East of the Mississippi did not have a telegraph office by 1850?
Most white Americans believed it was their "manifest destiny" to do what?
Extend the US to the Pacific Ocean
What was the promise of free labor?
Economic success is available to all who are willing to work
What did the Promise of Free Labor emphasize?
The importance of hard work. self reliance, and discipline
The Promise of Free Labor inspired...
The opening of free public schools
Southern whites criticized "free labor" as a system of...
A leading apologist for slavery
Free labor advocates were usually not...
In the Revolutionary and early national periods most white Southerners had described slavery as a...
By the antebellum period, white Southerners described slavery as...
a "positive good"
Largest slave uprising of the antebellum period
Massacre in Virginia led by Nat Turner in 1831
Denmark Vesey Conspiracy
Charleston slave who had one the lottery and bought his freedom and the court charged in 1822 which led to a revolt from slaves
Why were slave rebellions very rare in the South?
Very little chance of succeeding
Few places to disappear into
Less overt methods of resistance were more common
Why was resistance to slavery always dangerous?
Sale of offending slave/family
Sexual coercion of slave women
What was a major reason for the US fighting the Mexican-American War?
To protect slavery
When did American settlers in Texas win Independence from Mexico?
Texas would have to enter the US as a...
Slave state which would risk the balance between slave and free states
Dealing with the territory acquired in the Mexican cession would...
Strain the compromises over slavery which had patched the nation together since the 1820s
Proposed banning slavery in all of the territories form the Mexican Session
Believe territories were common property of the US and banning slavery denied citizens the right to property
John C. Calhoun
Advocated popular sovereignty; those who settled the territories should make the decision about slavery
Northerners believed that the decision about slavery could be made as soon as...
The territory got a legistlature--most territories would be free soil dominated
Southerners believed that the decision about slavery could be made when...
The territory applied for statehood and that slavery would already have become established
Sought to balance the interests of slave and free states but not necessarily to balance their representation in Congress
Compromise of 1850
Terms of the Compromise of 1850
-California would enter as a free state
-Created New Mexico and Utah territories
-Fugitive Slave Act
-Ended slave trade in DC
In the 1850s both free and slave states began to conclude that each section was...
Conspiring to destroy the other
Stephen Douglas wanted the railroad to...
Run through Chicago so it would have to run through Nebraska
Not interested in Western Development
Southern Congressmen agreed to help Stephen Douglas in exchange for...
A repeal of the Missouri Compromise
Organized Nebraska into two territories
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act do?
Repealed the Missouri Compromise
Removed Indians further west
Why were Elections held in Kansas in 1854?
To determine whether it would be slave or free
During the Kansas slave election most of the "voters" came from...
What would happen to Missouri if Kansas became a free state?
Missouri would be surrounded on three sides by free states
Kansas becomes what kind of territory?
Those who opposed slavery in Kansas were barred from...
Holding office and serving on juries
When does civil war break out in Kansas?
How did the Civil War in Kansas start?
Pro-slavery forces invaded the anti-slavery center of Lawrence
Permitted slavery and prohibited free blacks from entering the territory of Kansas
Lecompton Constitution (1857)
A slave with an enslaved wife and two children sued his master for his family's freedom
What did Dred Scott base his claim on?
His master had taken him from Missouri to Illinois and Wisconsin
What happened in Dred Scott v. Sanford?
Declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
When John Brown led 22 men in a raid on a federal arsenal in Virginia
Raid on Harper's Ferry (1859)
What was the intention of the Raid on Harper's Ferry?
To inspire eastern slaves to revolt, arm them, and create a guerrilla force in the nearby mountains
What general showed up at the Raid on Harper's Ferry?
Robert E. Lee
Which president sponsored a plan for making California a free state
Why were Democrats able to remain a national party
They advocated popular sovereignty
Why did Northerners leave the Democratic party?
Democrats advocated popular sovereignty in the territories from the Louisiana Purchase
Which two main parties emerged out of the Whig party?
The American and Republican parties
American party was also known as...
The "Know Nothing" Party
Primary platforms for the American party?
Nativism and anti-Catholocism
Which party started as a coalition of antislavery Northerners?
Which two parties did the Democrat party split into?
The Northern Democrats and the Southern Democrats
When did the Civil War officially start?
April 12, 1861
What did the 1861 Confiscation Act allow?
Union troops to seize salves working for the Confederate military
What did the 1862 Second Confiscation Act say?
All slaves of rebel masters to be forever free of their servitude
Declared all slaves living in areas still under rebellion to be free
The Emancipation Proclamation
Delivered following the Union Victory at Gettysburg, PA
By the final years of the war, Union strategy relied on...
The fact that the Union had more men to lose than did the Confederacy
When was slavery officially abolished?
When the 13th amendment was ratified in Dec. 1865
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