process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood
A small pouch located where the small intestine joins the large intestine. It has no known use and sometimes can become infected and have to be removed.
Pointed, "dog tooth"-like (canine) teeth, next to (distal to) the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.
common bile duct
The duct that carries bile from the gallbladder and liver to the small intestine (duodenum).
The primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials.
Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
hormone produced by endocrine cells of pancreas; transports sugar into cells from blood and stimulates glycogen formation by lvier
large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity
Sixth, seventh and eighth teeth from the middle or either side of the dental arch. The most posterior molar is known as the wisdom tooth.
Roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat.
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
Fourth and last S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
villi (singular: villus)
Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when jproteins are digested
blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant (RLQ). It literally means hanging (pend/o) on to (ap-, which is a from of ad-).
digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules. Bile originally was called gall (Latin bilis, meaning gall or anger), probably because it has a bitter taste. It is composed of bile pigments (colored materials), cholesterol, and bile salts.
Pointed, dog-like teeth (canine means pertaining to dog) next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth
large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments of the colon; and the rectum
common bile duct
carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. also called the choledochus.
the primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces
Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat
a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances. Enzymes are given names that end in -ase.
third part of the small instestine; from the greek eilos, meaning twisted. when the abdomen was viewed at autopsy, the intestine appeared twisted, and the ileum often was an area of abstruction.
hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
second part of the small intestine. The latin jejunus means empty; this part of the intestine was always empty when a body was examined after death
a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. the liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weighs abour 21/2 to 3 pounds.
lower esphageal sphincter (LES)
ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. also called cardiac sphincter
the sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars
roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat
organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods)
rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, peristalisis moves the contents through at different rates:stomach, 0.5 to 2 hours; small intestine, 2 to 6 hours; and colon, 6 to 72 hours. peri- means surrounding; -stalsis is constriction
ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum. from the greek pyloros, meaning gatekeeper. it is normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalisis passes over it.
fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum;empties into the rectum
muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. The stomach's parts are the fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section)