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172 terms

Medical Coding/Billing Chapter 5

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an/o
anus
append/o
appendix
appendic/o
appendix,
bucc/o
cheek
cec/o
cecum
celi/o
belly, abdomen
cheil/o
lip
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
choledoch/o
common bile duct
col/o
colon, large intestine
colon/o
colon
dent/i
tooth
duoden/o
duodenum
enter/o
intestines, usually small intestine
esophag/o
esophagus
faci/o
face
gastr/o
stomach
gingiv/o
gums
gloss/o
tongue
hepat/o
liver
ile/o
ileum
jejun/o
jejunum
labi/o
lip
lapar/o
abdomen
lingu/o
tongue
mandibul/o
lower jaw, mandible
odont/o
tooth
or/o
mouth
palat/o
palate
pancreat/o
pancreas
peritone/o
peritoneum
pharyng/o
throat
proct/o
anus and rectum
pylor/o
pyloric sphincter
rect/o
rectum
sialaden/o
salivary gland
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
stomat/o
mouth
uvul/o
uvula
amyl/o
starch
bil/i
gall, bile
bilirubin/o
bilirubin (bile pigment)
chol/e
gall, bile
chlorhydr/o
hydrochloric acid
gluc/o
sugar
glyc/o
sugar
glycogen/o
glycogen, animal starch
lip/o
fat, lipid
lith/o
stone
prote/o
protein
sial/o
saliva, salivary
steat/o
fat
-ase
enzyme
-chezia
defecation, elimination of wastes
-iasis
abnormal condition
-prandial
meal
absorption
process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
amylase
Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
anus
opening through which wastes leave the digestive tract
appendix
A small pouch located where the small intestine joins the large intestine. It has no known use and sometimes can become infected and have to be removed.
bile
a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
bilirubin
pigment released by the liver in bile
bowel
intestine
canine teeth
Pointed, "dog tooth"-like (canine) teeth, next to (distal to) the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.
cecum
First part of the large intestine (colon).
colon
the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum
common bile duct
The duct that carries bile from the gallbladder and liver to the small intestine (duodenum).
defecation
the elimination of fecal waste through the anus
deglutition
Swallowing
dentin
The primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
digestion
The breaking down of food into nutrients the body can use
duodenum
first protion of the small intestine
elimination
Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials.
emulsification
Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
enamel
hard white substance covering the crown of a tooth
enzyme
a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances
esophagus
Tube connecting the throat to the stomach
fatty acids
Substances produced when fats are digested
feces
Solid wastes; stools
gallbladder
Small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose
A simple sugar.
glycogen
Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
hydrochloric acid
substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
ileum
Third part of the small intestine
incisor
one of four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin
hormone produced by endocrine cells of pancreas; transports sugar into cells from blood and stimulates glycogen formation by lvier
jejunum
second part of the small intestine
lipase
Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
liver
large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach
mastication
chewing
molar teeth
Sixth, seventh and eighth teeth from the middle or either side of the dental arch. The most posterior molar is known as the wisdom tooth.
palate
Roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat.
pancreas
organ under the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes
papillae (singular: papailla)
small elevations on the tongue. a papilla is a nipple-like elevation
parotid gland
Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis
rhythmic muscular contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
portal vein
Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
protease
Enzyme that digests protein
pulp
Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter
Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum
pylorus
Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
rectum
Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
rugae
Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
saliva
digestive juice produced by salivary glands
salivary glands
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
sigmoid colon
Fourth and last S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
sphincter
circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach
large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
triglycerides
Large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol
uvula
Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
villi (singular: villus)
Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
absorption
passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
amino acids
small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when jproteins are digested
amylase
enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
anus
terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
appendix
blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant (RLQ). It literally means hanging (pend/o) on to (ap-, which is a from of ad-).
bile
digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules. Bile originally was called gall (Latin bilis, meaning gall or anger), probably because it has a bitter taste. It is composed of bile pigments (colored materials), cholesterol, and bile salts.
bilirubin
pigment released by the liver in bile
bowel
intestine
canine teeth
Pointed, dog-like teeth (canine means pertaining to dog) next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth
cecum
first part of the large intestine
colon
large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments of the colon; and the rectum
common bile duct
carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. also called the choledochus.
defecation
elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus
deglutition
swallowing
dentin
the primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
digestion
breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
duodenum
first part of the small intestine. duo = 2, den = 10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long
elimination
act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces
emulsification
Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat
enamel
hard, outermost layer of a tooth
enzyme
a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances. Enzymes are given names that end in -ase.
esophagus
tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Eso- means inward; phag/o means swallowing
fatty acids
substances produced when fats are digested
feces
solid wastes; stool
gallbladder
small sac under the liver; stores bile. Remember: gallbladder is one word!
glucose
simple sugar
glycogen
starch;glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
hydrochloric acid
substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
ileum
third part of the small instestine; from the greek eilos, meaning twisted. when the abdomen was viewed at autopsy, the intestine appeared twisted, and the ileum often was an area of abstruction.
incisor
one of four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin
hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
jejunum
second part of the small intestine. The latin jejunus means empty; this part of the intestine was always empty when a body was examined after death
lipase
pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
liver
a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. the liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weighs abour 21/2 to 3 pounds.
lower esphageal sphincter (LES)
ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. also called cardiac sphincter
mastication
chewing
molar teeth
the sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars
palate
roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat
pancreas
organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods)
papillae (singular: papilla)
small elevation on the tongue. a papilla is a nipple-like elevation
parotid gland
salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis
rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, peristalisis moves the contents through at different rates:stomach, 0.5 to 2 hours; small intestine, 2 to 6 hours; and colon, 6 to 72 hours. peri- means surrounding; -stalsis is constriction
pharynx
throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose.
portal vein
large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
protease
enzyme that digests protein
pulp
soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum. from the greek pyloros, meaning gatekeeper. it is normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalisis passes over it.
pylorus
distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
rectum
last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
rugae
ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
saliva
digestive juice produced by salivary glands
salivary glands
parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
sigmoid colon
fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum;empties into the rectum
sphincter
circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach
muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. The stomach's parts are the fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section)
triglycerides
fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol
uvula
soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate. The latin uva means bunch of grapes
villi (singular: villus)
microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream