Ex Phys Final Exam Study Guide Part 1
Terms in this set (62)
Coupled reactions are defined as
reactions that are linked together, with the liberation of free energy in one reaction being used to drive the second reaction
Most of the carbohydrate (e.g., for a rested, well-fed athlete) used as a substrate during high-intensity exercise comes from
muscle glycogen stores
The term oxygen deficit refers to the
lag in oxygen consumption at the beginning of exercise
Energy to fun a maximal 400-meter race (ie. 50 to 60 seconds) comes from
a combination of aerobic/anaerobic metabolism, with most of the ATP coming from anaerobic sources
Energy to run a 40-yard dash comes
almost exclusively from the ATP-CP system
A respiratory quotient (RQ) of 0.95 during steady state exercise is suggestive of a(n)
high rate of carbohydrate metabolism
The process of breaking down triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol is called
During the "rapid" portion of the oxygen debt (or EPOC) the excess VO2 is due to
restoration of muscle PCr and blood and muscle oxygen stores
Trained individuals have a lower oxygen deficit; this may be due to
having a better developed aerobic bioenergetic capacity
Which of the following is true concerning VO2 max?
it is a valid measure of cardiovascular fitness
Trained individuals usually produce less lactate than untrained individuals when making the transition from rest to steady-state exercise
The term homeostasis is defined as
the maintenance of a constant internal environment
The accumulation of _____ would slow glycolysis by inhibiting its rate-limited enzyme
The total ATP production via aerobic breakdown of glucose is
The conversion of pyruvate to lactic acid requires:
the enzyme LDH and NADH+ H+
The rate-limited enzyme in the Kreb's cycle is
The most important rate limited enzyme in glycolysis is
What is the end product of anaerobic glycolysis?
Which of the following is true concerning the electron transport chain?
The electrons passed down the chain will eventually be used to help form water
What is the last electron receiver in the transport chain?
What is the most important function of the Krebs cycle?
To remove hydrogens and the energy associated with those hydrogens from various substrates involved in the cycle.
Complete the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (i.e., form NADH and FADH)
Enzymes are catalysts that increase the rate of reactions by
lowering the energy of activation
The simplest and most rapid method of producing ATP during exercise is through
Which of the following statements about glycolysis is correct?
Glycolysis ends with the production of pyruvic acid or lactic acid
The two most important hydrogen (electron) carriers in bioenergetic chemical reactions are
NAD and FAD
Aerobic production of ATP occurs in the
mitochondria (i.e., electron transport chain) in a process called oxidative phosphorylation
The process of beta oxidation involves
the breakdown of a fatty acid to acetyl-CoA
Once pyruvic acid has been converted to lactic acid, it cannot be turned back into pyruvic acid
The enzyme responsible for catalyzing the immediate energy system is
The lactate threshold is defined as the work rate or oxygen uptake at which there is a systematic
rise in blood levels of lactic acid
Training individuals have a lower oxygen deficit; this may be due to
having a better developed aerobic bioenergetic capacity
The carbohydrate fuel source that becomes most important after 3-4 hours of moderate-intensity (~70% VO2 max) exercise is
Given the importance of maintaining the plasma glucose concentration during exercise, insulin secretion would be ________ during exercise?
The neurotransmitter of preganglionic sympathetic fiber is:
The mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue and glucose from liver glycogen would be stimulated by
a decrease in insulin and an increase in glucagon
When adenylate cyclase is activated by a hormone, the concentration of cyclic AMP increases in the cell even though the hormone does not enter the cell. This is an example of the _____ mechanism of hormone action
Steroid hormones exert their effect by
The concentration of the hormone in the plasma and hte number of active receptors to which it can bind.
altering the activity of DNA
Anatomically, the nervous system can be divided into two main parts:
central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
The amount of for exerted during muscular contraction is dependent on the
type of motor units recruited, the initial length of the muscle, and the nature of the neural stimulation
The contraction phase of the heart is called
The pulse pressure is measure of:
the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure
The action potential is generated when a stimulus
opens sodium channels
A successful endurance athlete would likely have ______ fibers compared to a sedentary person
a higher percentage of type 1 fibers
The most important variable that determines resistance to blood flow is
difference in pressure at the two ends of the system
the diameter of the vessel
The thin muscle cells located within the muscle spindle are called
In skeletal muscle, the Ca2+ is stored in:
sarcoplasmic reticulum and lateral sacs
The motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates are called _______
The site where the motor neuron and muscle cell meet is called the
rising phase of the action potential
Which of the following events in muscle contraction is the first to occur chronologically?
the innervating alpha-motor neuron has an action potential
Which of the following events in muscle contraction is the last to occur chronologically?
calcium is resequestered (taken up) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Most of the O2 that is transported in the blood is in
the form of oxyhemoglobin
Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood principally by
What is Fick's Law of Diffusion?
the rate of diffusion for a gas is greater when the surface area for diffusion is large and pressure between the two sides of the tissue is high.
One of the principal means by which the kidneys regulate acid-base balance is
by increasing or decreasing the bicarbonate concentration in the blood
The most important muscles of inspiration is the
Sodium bicarbonate has been ingested by athletes in an attempt to improve performance by
increasing blood buffering capacity
Which of the intracellular buffers contributes the most to the cell's buffering capacity?
Which of the following is true of the heart rate change during exercise
the increase in HR is due to PNS withdrawal followed by increasing SNS influence
The greatest resistance to blood flow is in the
Volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole before they begin to contract
end-diastolic volume or preload
The fact that an increase in end-diastolic ventricular volume increases the stroke volume of the heart is an illustration of the
Frank-Starling Law of the heart
What is true about the regulation of acid-base balance in the muscles during exercise
10-20% from intracellular phosphate groups