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Exam 2 plant physiology
Terms in this set (37)
Among the products of glycolysis, which compounds contain energy that can be used by other biological reactions?
pyruvate, ATP, and NADH
In the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, one carbon atom is released as CO2. However, the oxidation of the remaining two carbon atoms—in acetate—to CO2 requires a complex, eight-step pathway—the citric acid cycle. Consider four possible explanations for why the last two carbons in acetate are converted to CO2 in a complex cyclic pathway rather than through a simple, linear reaction.
It is easier to remove electrons and produce CO2 from compounds with three or more carbon atoms than from a two-carbon compound such as acetyl CoA
In cellular respiration, a series of molecules forming an electron transport chain alternately accepts and then donates electrons. What is the advantage of such an electron transport chain?
The advantage of an electron transport chain is that a small amount of energy is released with the transfer of an electron between each pair of intermediates
Two molecules with the chemical formulas C6H12O6C6H12O6 and C6H12O2C6H12O2 are probably
a monosaccharide and a fatty acid
Under anaerobic conditions (a lack of oxygen), the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA stops. Which of these statements is the correct explanation for this observation?
In the absence of oxygen, electron transport stops. NADH is no longer converted to NAD+, which is needed for the first three stages of cellular respiration
Under which conditions will plant cell mitochondria actively oxidize pyruvate and carry out oxidative phosphorylation?
in all cells, with or without light
The mechanism of photophosphorylation is most similar to which of the following processes?
oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration
P680+ is said to be the strongest biological oxidizing agent. The strong oxidizing potential of P680+ is essential for its function because it ________.
obtains electrons from the oxygen atom in a water molecule
In chloroplasts, the photosynthetic electron transport chain acidifies which of the following cellular compartments?
Which of the following molecules is the primary reducing agent in the Calvin cycle reactions?
Which of the following statements best explains the ability of C4 plants to perform photosynthesis with no apparent photorespiration?
They use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO2
Carbon fixation involves the addition of carbon dioxide to _____.
After 3-PGA is phosphorylated, it is reduced by _____.
The majority of cell surface receptor proteins:
have an extracellular domain (region), a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain
Imagine a man speaking loudly on a crowded bus. People around him can hear what he's saying, but people farther away on the noisy bus can't. Which type of intercellular communication is this communication between people most like?
A hormone is a:
Which of the following is true of intracellular signal transduction?
Information from the initial signal is relayed inside the cell
Which of the following triggers the exchange (replacement) of GDP with GTP on a G protein?
Ligand binding to a G protein-linked receptor
In general, nuclear responses are a direct outcome of the action of:
Which of the following would be predicted to lead to overly active signal transduction via a phosphorylation cascade?
An underactive protein phoshatase
Cytochalasin B is a drug that plant breeders use to treat cells when they want to double the number of chromosomes by disrupting the mitotic spindle. Based on this information, how is cytochalasin B most likely to act?
Cytochalasin B causes microtubule depolymerization
Cyclin E forms a complex with a cyclin-dependent kinase called Cdk2. This complex is important for the progression from G1 into the S phase of the cell cycle. Based on this information, which of the following statements can be predicted to be correct?
The amount of cyclin E will be highest late in G1 and early S phase
Imagine a cell that contains 32 sister chromatids during metaphase of mitosis. How many chromosomes will be present in each daughter cell produced from this cell during the G1 phase of the cell cycle?
Which of following alterations would be expected to lead to a prolonged period of activity for a CdK protein?
A cyclin resistant to enzymes that break down proteins
Which of the following is the shortest phase of the cell cycle?
Once central nervous system neurons (nerve cells) acquire their adult, specialized properties, they do not divide. Therefore, these central nervous system cells are expected to be in the _______ phase of the cell cycle.
If the amount of a CdK needed to cross the M phase cell cycle checkpoint were plotted across the cell cycle, this plot would be:
Which of following creates genetic variation through the different ways homologous chromosomes align relative to the metaphase plate at metaphase I of meiosis? (The metaphase plate is the imaginary plane midway between the poles of the mitotic spindle.)
Imagine that there are twenty-five different species of simple eukaryotic organisms living in a tide pool. Some of these species reproduce sexually, and some of them asexually. The pool gradually becomes infested with disease-causing viruses and bacteria. Which species are more likely to thrive in this changing environment?
the sexually reproducing species
During meiosis, haploid cells are first seen:
at the end of meiosis I
Which of the following creates new combinations of genes along a chromosome?
Diploid cells in a species of fruit fly have 8 chromosomes. If one of these cells completes all cell divisions of meiosis, the nucleus in each of the daughter cells will contain ______ chromosomes and ________ molecules of double-stranded DNA.
4 chromosomes; 4 molecules of double-stranded DNA
One of Mendel's monohybrid crosses involved a homozygous yellow-seeded plant crossed with a homozygous green-seeded plant. All the F1 had yellow seeds. Mendel went on to cross the yellow F1 offspring back to the the green-seeded parent plant. The chance that the first pea seed produced from this cross is yellow is:
In pea plants, purple flowers are dominant to white and tall plants are dominant to dwarf. In a cross between a tall plant with purple flowers that is heterozygous for both genes (TtPp) with a homozygous recessive dwarf plant with white flowers (ttpp), what fraction of offspring are expected to be tall with purple flowers?
In a strain of mouse, two alleles of one coat color gene are incompletely dominant. The B allele is associated with black coat color and the b allele is associated with white coat color. In the cross Bb x Bb, what portion of offspring are expected to be black?
In peas, round seeds are dominant to wrinkled seeds. Imagine that a test cross is performed between a plant grown from a round seed and a plant grown from a wrinkled seed. Ten pea seeds produced from this cross are counted: 8 are round and 2 are wrinkled. In this case, the round seed parent must have been:
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disease caused by homozygosity for a defective allele of a gene that codes for an enzyme. Left untreated, PKU results is serious problems. However, if individuals homozyogous for the PKU allele are provided a diet with low levels of the amino acid phenylalanine, they do not develop any symptoms of PKU. These observations are consistent with the idea that:
phenotype = genotype + environment
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