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69 terms

Medical Assistant Cardiology (Kinn's)

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chordae tendineate
tendons that anchor the cusps of the heart valves to the papillary muscles of the myocardium, preventing valvular prolapse
intermittent claudication
recurring cramping in the calves
Marfan syndrome
inherited condition, elongation of bones, joint hypermobility, abnormalities of eyes, development of aortic aneurysm
heart
a pump that pushes blood through all the arteries, blood circulates oxygen and nutrients, picks up waste, hollow, muscular organ, size of a fist
pulmonary
pertaining to the lung (pulmonic); right ventricle to lungs to pulmonary veins to left atrium
heart, chambers
four: 2 atria, 2 ventricles
atria
receive blood
ventricles
pump blood
heart, type
muscular organ
heart, what
pump providing force needed to push blood through the arteries of the body
heart, why
circulates a continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients and picks up metabolic waste
deoxygenated blood
goes through the pulmonary artery to lungs for oxygen sending blood back through pulmonary veins to left side of heart
heart's double membrane sac
pericardium
heart layers
epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
heart conduction
electrical conduction system that stimulates contractions
heart conduction, route
SA node sends electrical impulses to AV, these are transmitted to bundle of HIS (conduction fibers) which divide, becoming smaller, ending with the Purkinje fibers
SA node
pacemaker of the heart
chordae tendineae
tendons, anchor cups of heart valves to papillary muscles of myocardium, prevents valvular prolapse
intermittent claudication
recurring cramping in calves caused by poor circulation
Marfan syndrome
genetic, elongated bones, joint hypermobility, abnormalities of eyes, development of aortic anerysom
scleroderma
autoimmune, affects blood vessels and connective tissue, fibrous degeneration of major organs
CHF
congestive heart failure, myocardium can't pump enough blood to meet body's needs
bruit
abnormal sound or murmur
depolarization
contraction of atria and ventricles
repolarization
recovery occurring after chambers contract
polarization
resting
atheroma
accumulation and swelling in artery walls that is made up of plaque and debri
myocardial ischemia
decrease of blood flow to the heart, angina symptom
thrombus
blood clot
embolus
floating blood coat
metabolic syndrome
risk factors include high blood pressure, obesity, high cholesterol, and insulin resistance
pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium
myocarditis
inflammation of the myocardium
endocarditis
inflammation of the myocardium
bifurcate
dividing into two branches, splits
pallor
lack of color
heart function
muscular pump that pushes body through the body
heart-three layers
endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
MI and Angina difference
MI greater than 30 mins. and not relieved by rest or nitro.; Angina is less than 30 mins. and is relieved by rest or nitro.
MI-to reduce risk
stop smoking, change to a low fat, low cholesterol diet, do regular exercise, reduce stress
CAD risk factors that can not be changed
age, gender, family history, race
CAD risk factors than can be changed
smoking, High blood cholesterol, High blood pressure, Physical inactivity, Obesity and overweight, Diabetes mellitus
MI symptom for women
aching in both arms and jaw pain
hypertensive heart disease
chronic high blood pressure causing an enlargement of the left ventricle
primary hypertension
idiopathic
secondary hypertension
cause by a disease located in another body system
white coat hypertension
high blood pressure caused by anxiety over being at the healthcare facility
CHF symptoms
dypsnea, orthopnea, nonproductive cough, rales, tachycardia
CHF patient education
watch for weight gain, could be fluid retention
orthostatic hypotension
drop in blood pressure when changing positions, i.e. sitting to standing
valve disease-2 problems with
stenosis and incompetence (insufficiency)
MVP
mitral valve prolapse (a)
mitral valve prolapse (b)
incompetence in the mitral valve that leads to prolapse (congenital or scarring)
pulmonary system
carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs and back
systemic system
carries oxygenated blood to body tissues from left ventricle through the body back through the right atrium
arteries-function
carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
capillaries-function
exchange nutrients and gases
vein-function
carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart
shock
collapse of the circulatory system
varicose veins-cause
defective valves
signs of shock
thirstiness, restlessness, irritability
DVT
deep vein thrombosis (a)
deep vein thrombosis (b)
blood clot in a deep vein, leading to inflamed vein
DVT risk factors
surgery, old age, trauma, obesity, oral contraceptives, pregnancy
pulmonary embolism
DVT in the lungs
arteriosclerosis
thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls
atherosclerosis
arteriosclerosis with an atheroma
cholesterol produced by
liver
arteriosclerosis treatment
diet changes, aerobic exercise, smoking cessation