Geography ch 4 study guide

The total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of a group
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Terms in this set (72)
The average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her countryfertility rateThe number of deaths per thousandmortality rateThe number of deaths among infants under age one as measured per thousand live birthsinfant mortality rateAlso called population growth rate - the rate at which population is growing, found by subtracting the mortality rate from the birth rateRate of natural increaseThe average number of people who live in a measurable area, reached by dividing the number of inhabitants in an area by the amount of land they occupypopulation densityThe number of organisms a piece of land can support without negative effectscarrying capacityA type of government in which citizens hold political power either directly or through elected representativesdemocracyA type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodiesmonarchyA type of government in which an individual or group holds complete political powerdictatorshipA system in which the government holds nearly all political power and the means of productionCommunismHaving no outlet to the sealandlockedThe study of how people use space in citiesurban geographyA functional area including a city and its surrounding suburbs and exurbs, linked economicallymetropolitan areaA political unit or community touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the citysuburbExurbThe dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that resulturbanizationThe production and exchange of goods and services among a group of peopleeconomyThe way people produce and exchange goodseconomic systemA type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production. Also called a planned economycommand economyA type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers. Also called a demand economy or capitalismmarket economyA material on or in the earth, such as a tree, fish, or coal, that has economic valuenatural resourcesThe basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systemsinfrastructureThe average amount of money earned by each person in a political unitper capita incomeThe total value of all goods and services produced by a country in a period of timeGNP (Gross national product)The value of only goods and services produced within a country and a period of timeGDP (Gross Domestic Product)The way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customscultureName the seven elements of cultureSocial organization, customs and traditions, arts and literature, language, religion, forms of government, economic systemsThe number of people in a given areaPopulationWhat percentage of the world population lives in the northern hemisphere?90%What percentage of people live in south Asia or east Asia?50%What percentage of the worlds population lives in rural areas?50%What are push factors?conditions that drive people from their homesWhat are pull factors?conditions that attract immigrants to a new areaWhat is a mega city?A city with a population over 10 millionHow does population density differ from population distribution?Population density is the amount of people in a given area of space. Population distribution has to do with what areas of that space are more populated compared to other areas.Is Population Density a meaningful statistic?It can be meaningful to compare two different countries, but it can be misleading because the population distribution can be dramatically different in different parts of the areaWhat percentage of the earth is land?30%What was the worlds population in 1999? In the early 1800s?6 billion, 1 billionWhat are two factors that cause population to increase?High birth rate, low death rateWhat are the three most important geographical characteristics used to describe a country?Size, shape, and relative locationA boundary that is based on physical features of the land, such as rivers, lakes, or chains of mountainsNatural boundariesa fixed line generally following latitude or longitude linesArtificial BoundaryWhat is the line of latitude that separates the United States from Canada?49 deg NorthList the four primary types of governmentDemocracy, monarchy, dictatorship, and communismWhat are the four roles/goals of government?What do archaeologists believe to be one of the oldest cities in the world?Ur now in IraqWhy did Pittsburgh become a steel producing center?Because it is located close to iron ore and coal sourcesWhat are the three basic land use patterns found in cities?Residential, industrial, commercialThe production and exchange of goods and services among a group of peopleeconomyName the four basic types of economic systemsTraditional economy, command economy, market economy, mixed economyWhat are the four levels of economic activity?Primary activities, secondary activities, tertiary activities, quaternary activitiesLevel of economic activity that involves gathering raw materials such as timber for immediate use or to use in the making of a final productPrimary economic activityLevel of economic activity involving adding value to materials by changing their form. Manufacturing automobiles is an exampleSecondary economic activityLevel of economic activity involving providing business or professional services. Sales people, teachers, or doctors are examplesTertiary economic activitiesLevel of economic activity which provides information, management, and research services by highly trained personsQuaternary economic activityWhat is the difference between GDP and GNP?GDP is the price of all goods and services produced by a domestic economy for a year (within our country, within our borders) and GNP is the price of all goods and services supplied by the nation's residents (anywhere in the world)A natural resource that can be replaced through natural processes. example would be trees and seafoodRenewable natural resourcesA natural resource that cannot be replaced once it has been removed from the ground example would be metals and fossil fuelsNonrenewable natural resourcesA natural resource which is used for producing power that is the result of solar or planetary processes and are unlimited in quantity. Example would be sunlight, windInexhaustible energy resourcesThe basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systemsinfrastructureHow is population growth an asset? (Good)Increases the workforce, technologyHow is population growth a liability? (Bad)Limited resource availability, overcrowding