Chapter 12 - I/O

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Terms in this set (...)

What is Leader Emergence?
A part of trait theory that postulates that certain types of people will become leaders and certain types will not

-That does not mean there is a "leadership gene"
Affective Identity Motivation
The motivation to lead as a result of a desire to be in charge and lead others
Noncalculative Motivation
Those who seek leadership positions because they will result in personal gain
Social-Normative Motivation
The desire to lead out of a sense of duty or responsibility
What is Leader Performance?
A part of trait theory that postulates that certain types of people will be better leaders than will other types of people
Self-Monitoring
A personality trait characterized by the tendency to adapt one's behavior to fit a particular social situation
Needs
Need for POWER:
-Extent to which a person desires to be in control of other people

Need for ACHIEVEMENT:
-Extent to which a person desires to be successful

Need for AFFILIATION:
-Extent to which a person desires to be around other people
Leadership Motive Pattern
The name for a pattern of needs in which a leader has a high need for power and a low need for affiliation

This is not for personal power but for organizational power
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective personality test in which test-takers are shown pictures and asked to tell stories

It is designed to measure various need levels
Job Choice Exercise (JCE)
An objective test used to measure various need levels
Managerial Grid
A measure of leadership that classifies a leader into one of five leadership styles
Task-Centered Leaders
Leaders who define and structure their roles as well as the roles of their subordinates
Theory X Leaders
Leaders who believe that employees are extrinsically motivated and thus lead by giving directives and setting goals
Initiating Structure
The extent to which leaders define and structure their roles and the roles of their subordinates
Team Leadership
A leadership style in which the leader is concerned with both productivity and employee well-being
Impoverished Leadership
A style of leadership in which the leader is concerned with neither productivity nor the well-being of employees
Middle-Of-The-Road Leadership
A leadership style reflecting a balanced orientation between people and tasks
Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ)
A test used to measure a leader's self perception of his or her leadership style
Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ)
A test used to measure perceptions of a leader's style by his or her subordinates
Fiedler's Contingency Model
A theory of leadership that states that leadership effectiveness is dependent on the interaction between the leader and the situation

Some people are highly task-motivated. Will score low on least-preferred coworker scale. Relationship oriented are high on least-preferred coworker scale.
Least-Preferred Coworker (LPC) Scale
A test used in conjunction with Fiedler's contingency model to reveal leadership style and effectiveness
Task Structuredness
The variable in Fiedler's contingency model that refers to the extent to which tasks have clear goals and problems can be solved
Leader Position Power
The variable in Fiedler's contingency model that refers to the extent to which a leader, by the nature of his or her position, has the power to reward and punish subordinates
Leader-Member Relations
The variable in Fiedler's contingency model that refers to the extent to which subordinates like a leader
Leader Match
A training program that teaches leaders how to change situations to match their leadership style
IMPACT Theory
A theory of leadership that states that there are six styles of leadership

Each style will be effective only in one of six organizational climates

1. Informational

2. Magnetic

3. Position

4. Affiliation

5. Coercive

6. Racial

FOUR LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES:

-Find a climate consistent with your leadership style

-Change your leadership style to better fit the existing climate

-Change your followers' perception of the climate

-Change the actual climate
Informational Style
A style of leadership in which the leader leads through knowledge and information

-Most effective in a climate of ignorance
Ignorance
An organizational climate in which important information is not available
Magnetic Style
A style of leadership in which the leader has influence because of his or her charismatic personality

-Most effective in a climate of despair
Despair
An organizational climate characterized by low morale
Position Style
A leadership style in which the leaders influence others by virtue of their appointed or elected authority

-Most effective in a climate of instability
Instability
An organizational climate in which people are not sure what to do
Affiliation Style
A leadership style in which the individual leads by caring about others and that is most effective in a climate of anxiety
Anxiety
An organizational climate in which worry predominates
Coercive Style
A leadership style in which the individual leads by controlling reward and punishment

-Most effective in a climate of crisis
Crisis
A critical time or climate for an organization in which the outcome to a decision has extreme consequences
Tactical Style
A leadership style in which a person leads through organization and strategy

-Most effective in a climate of disorganization
Disorganization
A climate in which the organization has the necessary knowledge and resources but does not know how to efficiently use the knowledge or the resources
Path-Goal Theory
A theory of leadership stating that leaders will be effective if their behavior helps subordinates achieve relevant goals
Instrumental Style
In path-goal theory, a leadership style in which the leader plans and organizes the activities of employees
Supportive Style
In path-goal theory, a leadership style in which leaders who concern for their employees
Participative Style
In path-goal theory, a leadership style in which the leader allows employees to participate in decisions
Achievement-Oriented Style
In path-goal theory, a leadership style in which the leader sets challenging goals and rewards achievement
Follower Readiness
The ability and willingness to perform a particular task
Situational Leadership Theory
A theory of leadership stating that effective leaders must adapt their style of leadership to fit both the situation and the followers

There are four readiness (R) levels:

R1: Unable and unwilling/insecure
-Directing approach

R2: Unable but willing/confident
-Coaching approach

R3: Able but unwilling/insecure
-Supporting approach

R4: Able and willing/confident
-Delegating approach
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
A leadership theory that focuses on the interaction between leaders and subordinates

-Was originally called the Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) Theory

LMX theory states that leaders develop different roles and relationships with the people under them and thus act differently with different subordinates

-In-group subordinates are those who have developed trusting, friendly relationships with the leader

-Out-group subordinates are more likely to be given direct orders and to have less say about how affairs are conducted
Vroom-Yetton Model
A theory of leadership that concentrates on helping a leader choose how to make a decision (those graphs that are always in magazines)
Management By Walking Around
Leaders and managers are most effective when they are out of their offices, walking around and meeting with and talking to employees and customers about their needs and progress
Expert Power
Power that individuals have because they have knowledge
Legitimate Power
The power that individuals have because of their elected or appointed position
Reward Power
Leadership power that exists to the extent that the leader has the ability and authority to provide rewards
Coercive Power
Leadership power that comes from the leader's capacity to punish others
Referent Power
Leadership power that exists when followers can identify with a leader and the leader's goals
Transactional Leadership
Leadership style in which the leader focuses on task-oriented behaviors
Transformational Leadership
Visionary leadership in which the leader changes the nature and goals of an organization

-Too much effort has been expended in trying to label leaders as "transformational" or "charismatic"

-Instead, they proposed that excellent leadership should be defined by exemplar—that is, does a leader have characteristics similar to successful leaders and dissimilar to unsuccessful leaders?
Authentic Leadership
A leadership theory stating that leaders should be honest and open and lead out of a desire to serve others rather than a desire for self-gain

-An important aspect of authentic leadership is self-awareness
Uncertainty Avoidance
The extent to which a culture avoids uncertainty by using social norms and rituals
Power Distance
The extent to which power is unequally shared
Social Collectivism
The extent to which a culture encourages collective distribution of resources
In-Group Collectivism
The extent to which individuals express pride in their organizations and families
Gender Egalitarianism
The extent to which a culture tries to minimize differences in gender roles and prevent discrimination
Assertiveness
The extent to which individuals in a culture are assertive and challenging in social relationships
Future Orientation
The extent to which a culture plans for and invests in the future
Performance Orientation
The extent to which a culture encourages and rewards improvement in performance
Humane Orientation
The extent to which a culture encourages and rewards people for being fair, caring, and giving
6 Main Leadership Styles
Project GLOBE determined that six main leadership styles distinguish cultures

1. Charismatic

2. Self-protective

3. Humane

4. Team oriented

5. Participative

6. Autonomous