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Public Opinion
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Terms in this set (64)
when there is no group that makes up over half of a population, it is the group that makes up the largest percentile of a population

-The situation, beginning in the mid twenty-first century, in which the non Hispanic whites will represent a minority of the U.S population and minority groups together will represent a majority
interviews of surveys with the sample of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population

-A poll taken by sampling a cross section of the public in an effort to predict election results are to estimate public attitudes on issues; done more in a scientific fashion; it lets candidates know what the public cares about
political ideologyA coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and pubic purpose, which helps give meaning to political events -A consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government.political spectrumrange of political attitudes of the public going from extreme to moderate to extreme: liberal, moderate, conservativepolitical participation''those activities of citizens that attempt to influence the structure of government, the selection of government officials, or the policies of government.'This definition embraces both conventional and unconventional forms of political participation.civil disobedience Ex: Modern Acts of Civil Disobedience. Many individuals and groups use acts of civil disobedience to challenge modern human rights concerns, such as student loan debt, racially motivated killings, and climate change. Successful acts serve as inspiration as do failed civil disobedience examples. MLK, Rosa ParksA form of political participation based on a conscious decision to break a law believed to be unjust and to suffer the consequences -important part of a democratic country because it is one of the driving factors that allow individuals to exercise their rights to free speech and speak up against an unfair and unjust government and its laws.conservativeOne who favors more limited and local government, less government regulation of markets, and more social conformity to traditional norms and valuesfascismA political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism, and no tolerance of opposition. Ex: First found in Italy by Mussolini. Sig: Glorifies the state above the individual.anarchya state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government)communismA political system in which, in theory, ownership of all land and productive facilities is in the hands of the people, and all goods are equally shared.reactionaryA person who is extremely displeased with the existing conditions and supports a return to more conservative ways -Extremists who not only oppose change, but generally would like to turn the clock back to the way things were before.socialismA form of rule in which the central government plays a strong role in regulating existing private industry and directing the economy, although it does allow some private ownership of productive capacity.liberalOne who favors more government regulation of business and support for social welfare but less regulation of private social conductBeyond the simple left-right analysis, liberalism, conservatism, libertarianism and populism are the four most common ideologies in the United States, apart from those who identify as moderate. Individuals embrace each ideology to widely varying extents.Main political ideologies in the U.S?Conventional: Ex; especially campaigning for candidates and voting in elections. Campaign posters in front yards is conventional; spray-painting political slogans on buildings is not. or as political demonstrations, carrying signs outside an abortion clinic. Unconventional: Ex: linking arms to prevent entrance ( are often used by powerless groups to gain political benefits while working within the system).Conventional vs non convential political participationPolitical Party1) A group of people joined together on a set of common principles (platform) who seek to control governmental policies through the winning of elections and holdings of public offices1) Party in electorate 2) party as an organization-Fed, State, Local 3) Party in governmentPolitical party in 3 sphereswin as many elections as they can on all 3 levels so that they can spread their ideologies -have to make political calculations: do I run after a group of people or risk a group not voting again -Every 4 years, the two major parties create their party platform & who they announce will run for president Ex: immigration, free speech, gun platformGoal of political parties- *Us, people who identify as a republican & democrat, (citizens), * biggest group 2016: Dem: 42, Rep: 37, Independent: 12 -trust in two parties is declining= may not like the people that are representing them, fed up with the bickering & hyprocrciy, these numbers are pretty consistent1) party as electorate-people who are republicans or democrats that are part of an organization -political parties organized at a county level, state level, national organization: their job on the different levels is to organize their party wherever they are; national republicans help state republicans run for office2) party as an organizationpeople serving in government senators congressman/women3) party in government1) Nominate Candidates for public office-primaries, caucuses ** most important function -do this by holding primary elections and caucuses 2)Assist in running campaigns: - financial support, public relations, advertising, recruit workers and candidates -Raising money is ultimately the candidate´s responsibility But once you are a viable candidate in a close race, your parties might help you win Ex: Candidates that raise more money=more likely to get reelected Ex: District 6 is a swing district=more likely for more funding to help the republicans/dem Problem with 15/18 dem winning: Rep: why bother trying/ voting Dem: why bother trying if nothing will hold me accountable, will always win anyways 3) Cue givers to voters- also attempt to educate public; policy alternatives, information givers -we know how candidates stand on things -Without parties ® or (d), we don´t know what their platforms are on, also would prob have 50 people run for office -help organize elections 4) Articulate Policies-also attempt to educate public; policy alternatives, information givers certain policies that parties would want to talk about Ex: What do Republicans want to be the center on? That most americans would approve: the economy, business regulation, reduce taxes for everyone, business friendly climate that will provide more jobs Dem: more welfare programs to help unemployed people, healthcare, they will not talk about immgration Ex: Why do you have to be skeptical on the info that the political parties are talkin about? : It will be skewed, and biased Ex: increase tax by 2% or 66%? 2 sounds better 5) coordinate policymaking 6) watchdog function & healthy competition Ex: parties checking & balancing each other Biden & mask mandate, Republicans attack 7) ensure ethical behavior - used to hold each other accountable? - banishment of Marjoine Taylor green from joining committies - want to rise up the ranks of Congress= no opinion, team player Ex: Liz Cheny oustedWhat do political parties do?Primary: vote within their political party to determine who is going to run in the general election (depending on which state you are in, they hold it on different dates) Illinois held our primary election in March 17 (2017) Primary: presidental, U.S senate, congress seats - presidental, U.S senate, congress seats primary:Election in which voters decide which of the candidates within a party will represent the party in the general election. general: Election in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill elective public offices. - November (one-day)Primary vs general electionopen: A primary in which party members, independents, and sometimes members of the other party are allowed to vote. closed: A primary election in which only a party's registered voters are eligible to vote. Significance: This is what Republicans use, loyalty is important to them.open vs closed primaries1796-1824- First Party System 1824-1856- Jackson and the Democrats vs. The Whigs 1860-1928- The 2 Republican Eras 1932-1964- The New Deal Coalition 1968-Present- Southern Realignment and the Era of Divided Party GovernmentThird/Minor partyAny political party organized in at least a few states, other than the two current leading parties -electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American -_______ rarely win electionsIn order to get candidates on a ballot in a state, you need to get a certain # of signatures to get them on the ballot; the libertarians are the only third party that has support in 50 statesproblems/obstacles for third/minor party1) sectional/regional party 2)economic protest parties 3)ideological parties 4)splinter/factional charismatic personalitytypes of third parties1) parties that have a following in a particular reign in the country, but essentially no where else; but could win some electoral votes 2) election of 1966 Ex: Strom Thurmond and the Dixiecrat Party ran on a segregationist platform in 1948Sectional/regional partiesExample: James Weaver and the Populist Party won over 1 million popular votes and 22 electoral votes in 1892 -a temporary alliance of several groups who came together to form a working majority. ideological. based on or relating to a system of ideas and ideals, especially conserning economic or political theory and policy. single-issue parties. -Economic protest parties are parties rooted in poor economic times, lacking a clear ideological base, dissatisfied with current conditions and demanding better times.Economic Protest partiesset of beliefs on a large range of issues - tend to last the longest; long lasting party - Green party, Reform party Examples: Socialist, Communist, and Libertarian PartiesIdeological PartiesDef: Parties that break off two of the major parties in an election, will steal votes away from one of the two major parities huge impact; not bc they will win but b/c it will steal votes from other parties Election of 1966: Ross Perot, George Bush, Clinton Election of 2000: Al Gore vs. George W. Bush; came down to Flordia; If nader did not run, Al Gore could have run Doesn´t make sense politically: 1) You will never win, 2) you are helping the party that is hurting the party that you most align with; effect of Green Party on Dem, in order for us to consistently win, we need to reach these voters and get the people who switched back into our party; Republicans divided: Trump leader or Bush-era republican?= Trump has the most pull b/c he has such a strong supporter base that if they ever oppose Trump, they would never get elected into office again= Trump could form his own party= party fracturedSplinter/Factional Parties-Charismatic personalitychange platforms of major parities= lose the battle to win the war stealing votes in an election; get major party´s attention Innovators; Ex: Ross Perot w/ financial advice & ideas= Bill Clinton used them a lot (made people in his own party mad) Bring issues to light that aren´t really discussed: Green Party & Climate ChangeRole of minor parties:1) change platforms of major parities= lose the battle to win the war 2)stealing votes in an election; get major party´s attention 3) Innovators; Ex: Ross Perot w/ financial advice & ideas= Bill Clinton used them a lot (made people in his own party mad) 4) Bring issues to light that aren´t really discussed: Green Party & Climate ChangeRole of minor parties:Example: Prohibition Party in 1892SINGLE ISSUE PARTIES EXLinkage institutionsThe channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda. In the US, ____ institutions include elections. Political parties, interest groups, and the media -These institutions include: elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media. ***Significance: Our concerns would not be taken into notice without this system.LibertarianAn ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists on minimal government, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in moral, economic, and social life.ideologyedges of the political spectrummain goal is to reform by protesting. Examples - the Reform party and the Green partyFactional ("bolter") - splits in major parties. Examples - Dixiecrats in 1948(Democrats that wished to keep the Jim Crow laws) and The progressive or "bull moose" party in 1912(created by roosevelt from dissagreeance with taft)Protest/reform partiesticket-splittingvoting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices "splitting" votes between Democrats and Republicans (ex voting for democratic candidate for president and republican congressmen). This shows the lack of trust in government Significance: You don't have to only go for one party, maybe you don't like all of their decisions.blanket primariessystem used for selecting political party candidates in a primary election in the United States. In a ______ voters may pick one candidate for each office without regard to party lines; for instance, a voter might select a Democratic candidate for governor and a Republican candidate for senator. A primary in which voters can vote for the Democratic candidates, the Republican candidates, or some from each party = closed: A primary election in which voters must first declare to which party they belong **Significance: This is what Democrats use, which probably gets them more votes sometimes.national conventionThe meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform Significance: This is important because its one of the beginning steps of the whole nomination process.national committeeone of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The _______ is composed of representatives from the states and territories ***Group of people that directs party activity between conventions. Includes the party spokesperson Significance: Without this it would be difficult for the parties to keep organized.coalitiona group of individuals with a common interest on which every political party depends Significance: These people support their party to make sure they keep their promises.party eras **First Party System: 1792-1824. Second Party System: 1828-1854. Third Party System: 1854-1890s. Fourth Party System: 1896-1932. Fifth Party System 1933-1968. Sixth Party System, 1968-Present. Minor parties and independents. Democratic Party.historical periods in which a majority of voters cling to the party in power, which tends to win a majority of the elections - Today, we are in the Sixth party system Significance: This is probably the cause of why the Republican party was in office for a long period of time.critical electionan electoral "earthquake" where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party **An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues. Significance: This is what affects the outcome of an election sometimes.party realignmentthe displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election period Definition:The displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election period.Significance: It determines that it could be anyone's game.party dealignmentDefinition:The gradual disengagement of people and politicians from the parties, as seen in part by shrinking party identification. Significance: Affected voter turnouts. Less people started voting.proportional representationan electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election Significance: It's the opposite of the winner-takes-all system , which means they share votes.This is when one party's era ends and the other takes over. Example - in 1932 FDR (a democrat) won the presidencycritical election exampleLibertarian:____ is a political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism, and limiting the size and scope of government.coalition governmentwhen two or more parties join together to form a majority in a national legislature. This form of government is quite common in the multiparty systems of EuropeNew-Deal coalitiona coalition forged by the democrats, who dominated American politics from the 1930s to the 1960s. Its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectualsRational-choice theory: A popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters as well as politicians. It assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, carefully weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives1) cohorts of the group you are polling rep the group that vote 2) greater number of people interviewed=more likely the prediction is accurate 3) random polling to make sure that there is no bias 4) the more current the poll w/ modern day issues=can create more accurate stance 5) who you ask; registrated voter=likely to votecomponents that make a poll reliable (4)** Conservatives believe the scope of the gov has become too wide, Liberals think it should increase (Obama healthcare) no party=Political Independenys 9crucial swing voters)