Understand how sociologists define race and how understanding of race have changed over time
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Terms in this set (51)
Began during Jim Crow segregation and during slavery. Was used in law and in practice. "one drop" of Black blood meant you were Black/ a slave. Increased slave numbers and enforced Jim Crow.

Modern take: allows mixed people to claim their ancestral roots. Still used against POC by being seen as "not black enough".
Cultural explanations = focus on group and dominate popular thinking. Makes sweeping generalizations about groups. Assumes that if a group is less successful, it must be result of deficient cultural practices/values

Structural explanations = focuses on society rather than groups. "What is society doing that explains this?" More complex than actions of large groups. Systemic/structural/institutional.
Cultural: "Asians just value education more"
Structural: "People who are subject to housing inequalities tend to not perform as well in school due to external implications such as lack of high quality external resources"

Cultural: "Black Americans don't value education as much as other groups"
Structural: "Black Americans have been subject to years of slavery, legal racism, followed by systemic racism which has resulted in them facing educational inequalities as a consequence of structural impedances"
Interpersonal Racism- Insults, name-calling, stereotypes - Passive racism - MicroaggressionsPassive RacismLetting racism fly, allowing it to happen. Type of interpersonal racism. Not the direct perpetrator ex. laughing at a racist jokeMicroagressionAre brief and common place. Daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities. Intentional or unintentional. Communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults towards POC. ex. "You speak good English for an Asian person" "Where are you really from?"Ideological RacismA societal system of beliefs that particular groups are inferior. Scientific racism. ex. whites are superiorInstitutional RacismUnequal treatment that is built into the structure of society. ex. crack vs powder cocaine, powder cocaine sentencing is lower & more commonly used by white peopleWhat is a colorblind ideology and what are the beliefs associated with such an ideology?Idea that racism is minimal or non existent. Belief that POC are responsible for their own disadvantage. Colorblind ideology tries to explain racial inequalities.In what structural context did colorblind ideology arise?After Jim Crow, post 1960s. Needed new ideology to explain racial inequalities. Was no longer legal to discriminate based on race.What paradox does colorblind thinking try to resolve?If segregation is no longer legal, why does it exist? Colorblind thinking says racism doesn't really exist anymore.What are the four frames of colorblind racism developed by Bonilla-Silva and outlined in class and how do they help people understand the social world around them using a colorblind framework?1. Abstract Liberalism: Equal opportunity in the abstract meritocracy. ex. "POC shouldn't have unique opportunities like affirmative action. Everyone should have equal opportunities" 2. Naturalization: "That is just the way things are." Can't be avoided. ex. "It's not segregation, people just like living next to who they look like." 3. Cultural Racism: Blaming the culture or the racial group for inequalities. ex. "Mexicans don't value education" 4. Minimization of Racism: temporal distancing. Minimizing it by saying that it isn't as bad as it used to be. ex. "It's not that bad"What are some of the problems of using colorblind frames in a color-conscious world?Blames POC groups for their disadvantages. Relieves society of responsibility. Ignores unequal treatment in society. Forgets history Decreased support for anti-discrimination policies and affirmative action. Advocates for eliminating data collection based on race (if racism doesn't exist anymore, why collect data based on race)What are different mechanisms that create and perpetuate health inequalities by race?Systemic inequalities like: poor access and quality of health care resources, housing inequalities that subject certain races to air quality and living conditionsHow and why have various groups been disproportionately impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic?Disproportionately impacting Hispanic and African Americans. Intersects with social class. Inequalities for outcome of the pandemic, resources available, healthcare and vaccination accessWhy do some say race shouldn't be studied? Why does the American Sociological Association (ASA) continue to support the collection of race data?Some believe that racism is no longer a problem in society. ASA says to keep collecting data to get information that is not available elsewhere - Housing issue: Not letting black people into white neighborhoods - Interracial marriage - Racial profiling by law enforcementWhy does skin color vary among members of the human race? (Harris)Those who lived closer to the equator and in areas where there was more sun developed a darker pigment/ more melanin, as a defense to the sun's UV rays. People who lived further from the equator did not have as great of a need to have more melanin and resulted in a lighter pigment.What are some factors that help explain racial divisions in sports (e.g., why some sports are comprised of predominantly black athletes while others are mostly white)? (Buffington)The occupational structure of society and the opportunity structure within sport itself. High opportunities in sports and little opportunities in other fields.Be able to explain and provide examples of why race is a social construct, rather than biological. (Davis, Omi and Winant, Buffington)Racial categories have changed over time with society. Now can identify as multiple races. (ex. used to be that one drop rule made you black) Ex. Irish and Italians used to not be considered white. Same biological ancestry but different racial classifications.Be able to explain, with examples, how the racial categories were first constructed to uphold and justify power hierarchies in society. (Zinn)Desperate for labor. Needed to uphold subordination. Categorized certain races as beneath and others as superior. Racism followed slavery. Not naturally inferior, historically assigned inferior for exploitation of labor.What are some of the historic and political events that led to differences in wealth accumulation between racial groups? (Ioanide)Loans only being offered to whites in 1930s 1862 homestead act - enabled White Americans only - generational wealthWhy do sociologists argue that structural, rather than cultural factors, offer better explanations for health disparities between racial groups? (Mouzon)Residential segregation have led black neighborhoods to be poverty ridden, with poor resources, and poor quality and access to health. Only have fast food and liquor stores and no healthy options.What are examples of structural explanations for different educational attainment between racial groups? (Patel, Meanwell, and McClure)Blacks being prevented from going to college in 20th century. Link between education attainment and previous generations. There are still many first generation college students. Contained choices in society due to mass incarceration, substandard schooling, and job discrimination.What is problematic about the concept of meritocracy? (Ionide)Meritocracy doesn't acknowledge that not everyone has access to equal opportunities due to structural racism.What kinds of racial inequality exist in Hollywood? What factors drive this inequality? What are some actions that can be taken to reduce racial inequalities in the film industry? (Yuen)Casting inequalities. White actor is more likely to be cast as the main character over the POC actor. Casting POC into stereotypical roles and stereotypical side characters.Be able to explain how Muslims are racialized (Garner and Selod)Be able to explain the arguments against the use of Native American and Confederate symbols (Williams)They represent racial hierarchy of power. Management is always White Americans. Not honoring. Native American symbols - dominant gaze of white consumers. Enforces stereotypes. Confederate Symbols - linked to racism, slavery, and white supremacy. Reminder of Black people's "place".When a white person claims that they are not racist because they have a friend who is a person of color, why is this an insufficient justification for not being racist? (Harris, The Color of Fear film)You can like the individual and still dislike and disadvantage the race through actions and behavior towards a groupBe able to identify different examples of racial allyship and anti-racist actions? (Harris, The Color of Fear film)Allyship - White peers educating other white peers on societal inequalities, microaggressions, and racism Anti-Racist Actions - Intervening when encountering racism. Not letting it fly.In what ways is American identity shaped by race? (The Color of Fear film)American is synonymous with white in some colors. Being American doesn't "look" Asian, Hispanic, Black, etc. Being seen as American is associated with whiteness.What does the film The Color of Fear illustrate about what it means to be white? And what it means to be American?Explains how the two are nearly synonymous. Other races don't feel as though the title "American" fully applies to them as much as it applies to a white person.Explain why public health approaches to skin lightening are insufficient (Hunter)Focused more on attitudes rather than discriminationBe able to define and give examples of different forms of white privilege.Unfair societal advantages that white people have over POC, characterized by inequality and injustice. Inherent advantages possessed by a white person. Ex. Not being racially profiled by police Being attended to before a POC Learning about history as relevant to whitesWhat does Lipsitz mean by the possessive investment in whiteness? What are some examples of laws and policies which have benefited whites?Loaning money towards whites and away from communities of color for home ownership. Investing public money into white communities. Ex. Discriminatory FHA financing policies - whites paid less than blacks for same houseHow can a policy not be explicitly racist, but still have a racially disproportionate impact? (Lipsitz)Inequality in regard and treatment towards certain communities. ex Superfund left minority communities with longer waiting times, and were lower on priority list than white communities.What are some of the differences and similarities between the different perspectives shared in the Racial Autobiographies reading? What can these narratives illustrate about the different experiences between whites and people of color in America?Similar = letting racism fly, falling into believing stereotypes. Different = what groups they stereotyped, what degree they reproduced racismBe able to explain why the statement #AllLivesMatter is problematic (Orbe)Ignores structural racism that is oppressing Black people uniquely in this country. Exhibits colorblindness. Comes from white privilege. It is a post-racial rhetoric.Be familiar with the factors that influenced the characteristics of the Asian immigrant population in the United States (Zhou)Explain the problems with the "model minority" myth (Zhou)Idea that Asians are a minority who are prospering in the U.S therefore racism is no longer a thing. Not all Asian groups are prospering equally and are still being impacted by racism. Places a false expectation from all Asians.Be able to explain what colorblindness is, and how colorblindness can perpetuate racial inequalities (Gallagher)Failure to recognize racism still exists. Failure to make reparation policies under false pretenses will lead to persistence of inequalities in societyHow is #alllivesmatter similar to the model minority myth?They both ignore present day racism and systemic inequalities. They are both colorblind ideologies.How does structural racism contribute to racial health disparities? How does interpersonal racism contribute to racial health disparities?Structural - Poor health care resources and access to health care. Poor living conditions (bad air and access to food) Interpersonal - Healthcare providers have stigmatized ideas about certain races. Ex. Not offering proper pain medications to Black women in labor because they are "genetically stronger" - false narratives that lead to inequalitiesBe able to explain sociological reasons for COVID-19 disparities between racial groups (The Color of COVID, ASA)Greater consequences for certain racial groups. Some groups are subject to careers which do not allow them to stay at home.Understand how anti-Asian racism during COVID is connected to a longer history of anti-Asian racism in the United States (Vox)Chinese Exclusion Act and Japanese Camps during WW2. Make Asians the forever foreinger.