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10th grade regular world history, chapter 2 early history


land between Tigris and Euphraties


created Mesopatamian civilizations, People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.


independant city-state in Southern Meopatamia, an ancient Sumerian city in Southern Iraq, near the Euphrates, important before 2000 b.c. : exclusive archaeological excavations, notably of a ziggurat and of tablets with very early Sumerian script.

fertile crescent

Med sea to persian gulf

city states

land unit for Sumerian civilizations


a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians


the belief in government by divine guidance


warrior who found the Akkadian Empire and so became the first ruler of an empire in the Fertile Crescent


many territories and peoples controlled by one government


the chief city of ancient Mesopotamia and capitol of the ancient kingdom of Babylonia


Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)

code of hammurabi

the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, the earliest legal code known in its entirety




worshipping or believing in more than one god


an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia


the world's longest river (4180 miles)

lower egypt

The northern part of ancient Egypt

upper egypt

the southern part of ancient Egypt


king of upper Egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt


a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family


Egyptian ruler who was believed to be the son of Re, the sun god, in human form. He had total authority over people and land.


a system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials


embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy


an ancient Egyptian city on the west bank of the Nile opposite Cairo


group of Western Asians


First female pharaoh


monotheistic pharaoh

king tut

A young king whose tomb was filled with jewelry, robes, burial masks, and ivory statues. These findings have helped people learn about Egypt's past

rames ii

the strongest of the pharaohs at his time, ruled from 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C.


beautiful and charismatic queen of Egypt


ancient Egyptian writing system using picture symbols for ideas or sounds


a cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphics

pastoral nomad

Groups of herders who move with their animals from place to place in search of pasture and water


earliest versions of greeks, brought Gods, Zeus, warriors


believing that there is only one god


known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire


(Old Testament) king of Chaldea who captured and destroyed Jerusalem and exiled the Israelites to Babylonia (630?-562 BC)


the 20 states into which Darius divided the Persian Empire


a governor of a province in ancient Persia

royal road

a road in the persian empire, stretching over 1,600 miles from susa in persia to sardis in anatolia

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