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A law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission, provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions.

-not only required full reporting of campaign contributions and expenditures, but also limited spending on media advertisements.
A six-member bipartisan agency created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974. They administer and enforce campaign finance laws.

-Its duties include overseeing disclosure of campaign finance information and public funding of presidential elections, and enforcing contribution limits

-responsible for overseeing campaign financing, including who can give money, how much they can give, and how donations are disclosed.
Political contributions earmarked for party-building expenses at the grass-roots level. Such donations are not subject to contribution limits - were unlimited until banned by the McCain-Feingold Act

-**Campaign contributions that are referred to as soft money are those raised by national and state parties that are not regulated by the federal campaign finance law because they are not contributed directly to a candidate but rather to a party committee for its use in generic "party building" activities like "get-out- .

*money donated to political parties in a way that leaves the contribution unregulated. - there are no limits attached to the amount that can be received.
Political Action Committees (PACS)Funding vehicles created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or other interest group can create a PAC and register it with the Federal Election Commission, which will monitor its expenditures -Make campaign contributions to gain access to legislators, raise campaign funds to support favored candidates, most likely to contribute to incumbentsSuper PACsindependent expenditure-only political committees that may receive unlimited contributions from individuals, corporations, labor unions and other political action committees for the purpose of financing independent expenditures and other independent political activity. -A PAC that is allowed to give an unlimited amount of money to a candidate or political party. Money still comes from individual donors, labor unions, and nonprofits.$$$$ -Presidential candidates tend to be more moderate in the general election- Why? -Greater number you are trying to appeal to, more diverse type of people to appeal to vs. running for a district, those candidates tend to have much stronger beliefs - Range of people -Higher profile- more media attention to Presidential campaigns ***Joe Biden an advantage b/c sitting president don't have to run for primaries, many will run for republicans= will use more money & resources "Bruised and Blooded" b/c of primaries before the major election People who vote in primaries typically are hard-core democrats & hard-core republicans, so they will typically just appeal to just their core group of people but once they win the primaries, they are often faced with questions w/ what they said during the primaries Ex: Romney v. Obama: Romney took a moderate stance but during the primaries, he changed his stance & said 100% pro-life and then won, but then during the debate, he said it should be up to the states rights **Candidates run different platforms in primary elections so that they can at least win the primaryDifference between a presidental & Congressional campaign1) Tone-positive/negative - attack ads, mudslinging , celebs, common man? 2) timing-At what point is the candidate going to spend his/her resources on advertisements and commercials? 3) target-A campaign needs to identify particular demographic groups that could ultimately lead to their victory. COALITION -Democrats: Women, young, minorities, non-religious, LGBTQ+ -Republicans- religious right, single issue voters, Hispanics (single issue), taxpayers, white working class 4)Theme- Overarching idea/belief of the campaignCampaigns-4 T's•Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act 2001- AKA McCain/Feingold Bill-AKA McCain/Feingold Bill- Doubled individual contributions (1G to 2G's), banned soft money contributions1) General (Presidental or midterm ): Tuesday after the first Monday in November in every even numbered year presidential: every 4 year **gets the most voter turnout (55%)** midterm: every 2 year (off-year elections) 2) Primary: held by political parties within states in a general election year to determine candidates who are running can be different times 20-25% voter turnout (real-hardcore dem/republicans) 3)Midterm: No presidential race, every single seat in the House are up for reelection/ ⅓ Senate seats 35-40% voter turnout, much lower turnout in midterm elections 4)Local: School board, mayor of Vernon Hills, VH village board, park district commissioner, sheriff = ILlinois: April, every odd numbered year Smallest voter turnout Lake County: 13-14% voter turnoutELECTIONS: GENERAL vs. primary vs. miderterm vs localIowa Cacus/ New Hampshirethe first state in the nation to have a chance to show its support for candidates. "It's the first test in the nation, where we get any test at al.l" The level of support a candidate receives in Iowa gives a reasonable indication of how they will perform with the rest of American voters.caucusA caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement. a system for selecting convention delegates used in about a dozen mostly rural states in which voters must show up at a set time and attend an open meeting to express their presidential preference. presidential primaries.1)Created the FEC (independent agency) that regulates all the elections 2) Makes sure that all the candidates are meeting all the requirements 3)Every quarter, they must report to the FEC w/ their finances w/ 3 R & 3 D to take away bias 4)*interest groups & corporations, labor unions can't give money directly to a campaign so that these groups don't have influence in what congress passes (corruption) but also b/c they are not all a part of the same party Ex: teachers' union, not everyone is a Dem so you're using their money to spend on an party that they might to be a part of Limit money on how much you can spend on your own campaign 5) To get around the law, special interest groups create PACS Ex: illegal for NRA to fund Republicans so they created PACS NRA (political voting fund): asks members to give OUTSIDE money to candidates We can't use membership money but here is a list of all the candidates we support, so you can give money on their own Limit for $5000 per PAC***1971- Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)1976- Buckley v Valeo (1976)upheld federal limits in terms of contributing money in campaigns, as it is considered a form of constitutionally protected free speech. Also held expenditure limits unconstitutional A case in which the Supreme Court of the United States upheld federal limits on campaign contributions and ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of constitutionally protected free speech. The court also stated candidates can give unlimited amounts of money to their own campaigns.2002- Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act (BCRA)1)eliminated the increased use of "soft money" to fund advertising by political parties on behalf of their candidates *soft money - money donated to political parties in a way that leaves the contribution unregulated "Soft money": money raised outside the limits of the FECA laws Union, corporations, create shadow groups (527 groups) file w/ the gov; these groups can take in and spend unlimited amounts on campaigns Ex: file paperwork (527 group), get all my rich friends to give me money and spend money on campaign ads but not giving them directly to the campaign I choose This law tried to stop that It also doubled the money you can give to a candidate (200 K: this money is transferable, we can trace it)527 groupstax-exempt organizations that engage in political activities, often through unlimited soft money contributions. trying to influence federal elections through voter mobilization efforts and so-called issue ads that criticize a candidate's record.2003- McConnell v FECChallenging the "soft money" ban of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 and regulations of the source, content, or timing of political advertising in the Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002. They believed these exceeded the powers listed in Article 1, Section 4 of the United States Constitution or violated freedom of speech. Decision says they don't exceed any powers. Where: United States Congress When: GRANTED - Jun 5, 2003 ARGUED - Sep 8, 2003 DECIDED - Dec 10, 2003 Why: The BCRA passed in 2002 and was being challenged soon after. Challenges BCRA Uphold BCRAM (law is justified)Citizens United v FEC, 2012*A 5-4 majority of the Supreme Court sided with Citizens United, ruling that corporations and other outside groups can spend unlimited money on elections "Limiting independent political spending from corporations violates the First Amendment right to free speech" Corporations can now spend unlimited funds on campaign advertising only if they are not associated with that candidate or political party 2008 election: 2 main dem: Obama, Hillary Clinton Before primaries, R tried to make sure that Hillary would not win the primary Citizens United, created a 45 min doc, a week before primaries; fox was going to air it (can't be 60 days before an election) FEC says no: 60 days rule & outside group can't spend unlimited $ on a campaign or are they protected by first amendment Outcome: basically struck down the soft money ban , "corporations are people" Result: This is why we now have super pacs (unlimited $ flowing into the system from outside groups)ReferendumA state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment. allows citizens, through the petition process, to refer acts of the Legislature to the ballot before they become law. The referendum also permits the Legislature itself to refer proposed legislation to the electorate for approval or rejection.initative petition **Petitions require signatures while referendums require ballot a means by which a petition signed by a certain number of registered voters can force a government to choose either to enact a law or hold a public vote in the legislature in what is called indirect initiative, or under ...political efficacy"feeling that political and social change is possible and that the individual citizen can play a part in bringing about this change"interest groupAn organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals. They pursue their goals in many arenaspluralist theorya theory of government and politics emphasizing that many groups compete and counterbalance one another in the political marketplace **A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.elite theoryA theory of government and politics contending that an upper-class elite will hold most of the power and thus in effect run the government. **The theory suggests that the wealthy members of American society hold a degree of power that is heavily disproportionate, and which supersedes any real participation in the American democratic process.Hyperpluralist theoryA theory of American democracy contending that groups are so strong that government, which gives in to many different groups, is thereby weakened. **extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism. Compare to elite and class theory, pluralist theory, and traditional democratic theory.Collective goodSomething of value that cannot be withheld from a group member. *Benefits that are offered by groups (usually citizens' groups) as an incentive for membership but that are nondivisible (e.g., a clean environment) and therefore are available to nonmembers as well as members of the particular group.Free-rider problemfor a group, the problem of people not joining because they can benefit from the group's activities without joining Ex: NRA & labor unionsSelective benefitsGoods that a group can restrict to those who actually join ***Goods (such as information publications, travel discounts, and group insurance rates) that a group can restrict to those who pay their annual dues. Significance:Some get more benefits then others because they pay.Single-issue groupGroups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.Lobbyingprocess by which interest group members or ______attempt to influence public policy through contacts with public officials. Ex: An officer of Duke writes to a Member of Congress urging him or her to vote against an amendment that will be offered during the debate on a bill. This constitutes __________ because it states a view about specific legislation.ElectioneeringDirect group involvement in the electoral process, for example, by helping to fund campaigns, getting members to work for candidates, and forming Political Action Committees (PACs).Class action lawsuitsThese are cases that are brought to court by an individual who is representing not only themselves, but also others who have suffered similar experiences.Right-to-work lawsA state law forbidding requirements that workers must join a union to hold their jobs. These laws in the states were specifically permitted by the Taft-Hartly Act of 19415TH amendmentProhibits the federal government and states from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's race and color. -Post-Civil War- 187019th Amendment (1920)The right of citizens to vote can't be denied by their sex/gender. Women's right to vote Women were able to vote in each state but wanted a constitutional guarantee -Progressive Era- Women's suffrage-23rd Amendment1960s- Civil Rights Era Citizens in the District of Columbia (Washington D.C) has the right to choose electors in a presidential election24th amendmentProhibits any poll tax in elections for federal officials (Can't deny votes for the poor)26th amendmentLowered the voting age to 18 -response to Vietnam war, if you were drafted across the world, then you should get a vote 18-24 yr olds, lowest demographic turnoutVoting Rights Act of 1965took away voting restrictions If a law is going to be passed about voting, it needs to be cleared by the justice department any discriminatory practices are outlawed universal suffrage still in existence today1) registration -Registration prevents voter fraud every state requires require voter to register: so that people can't vote more than once (no voter fraud) -Illinois 3 requirements: you can register & vote when you're 17 in a primary, U.S citizen, residency requirement 2) Residency -familiar with whatthe issues are, can't swing elections -You must live within a state for a period of time prior to participating in an election -Illinois is 30 days 3) Age -"The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age." U.S. Constitution -However, if a state chooses to do so, it may lower the voting age.Type of laws or decisions do states and countries make concerning elections & voting?Interest group: less censured, work on # of different issues, influencing the people in government to influence their decisions, provide information for members of Congress, will fund studies for climate change, will fund studies in education: Bad (interest groups will be sitting down/helping Congressmen in writing bills & legislation); interest groups w/ money & power will essentially be writing the laws Ex: b/c you're not getting diff perspectives ( oil companies write laws) Can lobby exec branch too: Ex: EPA is being lobbied by oil companies & Sierra groups Political: very narrowed ideas, run people for office Congress: How do interest groups influence? Pledge to provide financial funding in support of votes Support in form of votes Lobbying**: persuad elected officials to vote a certain way; in return, we will provide you with electoral & funding support Judicial/ COurt: Interest groups ** takes up a lot of money, time, might not win ILLEGAL to lobby a judge lobby sentae to appoint certain judges Sue=litegation ( Brown vs. BOE) Ex: NAACP sued in judicial b/c lobbying senate would not work often times when cases go up to the supreme court, interest groups often give money for legal fees ** 1) Don't nominate candidates for office 2) interetested in controlling policies, not offices 3) concerned with a narrow scope of issues instead of a wide range like R & DInterest party vs political party?iron trianglesubgovernments are composed of interest group leaders interested in a particular policy, the government agency in charge of administering that policy, and the members of congressional committees and subcommittees handling that policy; they exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas -Iron triangle: working relationship between interest group, Congress committees & federal bureaucracy Interest groups target ppl working on these committees: Teachers will target ppl on education committee Interest groups also target bureaucracy to influence how those laws are enforced Ex: Committe on Education will work w/ Department of Education: get money to pperate & pass laws that they want, interest groups: forced in the way they want to, interest groups happy, will report that to Congress=more fundingPros: 1)Create an interest in public affairs -another way for people to participate in the system 2) provide info for those writing laws 3) pluralism= very positive view of interest groups in our system creates balance, no one group is dominant, interest groups are a good thing b/c it crates balance Bad: 1) Too much influence: *hyper-pluralism: too many competing interest groups, they fight each other & nothing gets done 2) Too much money=more electoral support 3) ** Elite-Class theory: groups that rep wealthiest system will be the most in power 4) **Free-rider system: interest grpps have a hard time reaching max potential Ex: Labor unions: Ford/ power plant; ppl working are unionized, 10 % are not in the labr union, does not pay dues but still reaps the benefits Ex: NRA, pro-gun rights, don't pay dues to be in the NRA but NRA still helps protect the rights of those who are not in the NRApros & Cons of interest groupsPACs: hard money, associated w/ interest groups how they can get around (forming pacs= voluntary contributions) SUPERPACS: outside groups, can raise & spend as much money they want (soft money ) as long as they are not associated w/ the political group -Outside groups that are legally allowed to collect and spend unlimited money on advertising and campaign activities without directly giving to candidates.PACS vs SUperpacs