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Practice Exam 4
Terms in this set (68)
The X-Ray crystallographic picture of DNA taken by Rosalind Franklin shown above was important in determining the structure of DNA because...
It suggests that DNA was a double helix
What is the function of DNA polymerase?
Joining nucleotides together that are complimentary to the template DNA during DNA replication
What happens to the two strands of a DNA molecule that gets replicated?
Each old strand ends up paired with a newly synthesized strand.
What are the products of the replication of one double stranded DNA molecule?
Two identical double-stranded DNA molecules
Errors in DNA replication....
Can be corrected by mismatch repair & Can be corrected by the proofreading capacity of many DNA polymerase
DNA helicase is the enzyme that...
Breaks the hydrogen bonds between two complimentary strands of DNA so that the DNA can be replicated
What parts of a chromosome specify the amino acid sequence of a protein?
The sequence of bases
DNA replication starts...
At specific origins of DNA replication
Differences between RNA and DNA?
Deoxyribose has fewer OH groups than ribose
DNA repair is present in...
All living things
The enzyme that transcribes DNA into RNA is...
The location where RNA polymerase binds, to start copying DNA into an RNA transcript for gene expression is determined by...
The location of a promoter
Usually both DNA strands of a gene are transcribed (T/F)
The newly transcribed RNA remains paired with the DNA template until a stop codon is reached (T/F)
DNA is usually double stranded in cells and RNA is usually single stranded in cells so..
RNA can assume many more shapes than DNA
Which molecule remains in the nucleus during protein synthesis?
Which of the following are proteins or are made of proteins?
RNA polymerase, Pores in the nuclear membrane, molecular motors, spindle fibers
How is translation initiated?
Two ribosomal subunits bind to the mRNA transcript
How many nucleotides in sequence are required to code for 10 amino acids?
Three essential elements for synthesis of a protein are?
tRNAs attached to amino acids, mRNA and a ribosome
The first amino acid in every protein is..
_____ is a stop codon
Complementary base pairing is essential for...
DNA replication, transcription, translation
The genetic code....
Is the same for all organisms (with a few exceptions)
If a codon has the sequence UUU what amino acid is carried by the tRNA that binds to it?
MicroRNAs control gene expression by
Binding to mRNAs preventing translation
The pre-mRNA (primary transcript) is processed into a mature mRNA by...
Removal of introns & Addition of a 5'cap and 3'poly A tail
Alternative splicing can result in..
Two different mRNAs that code for two different proteins spliced from a single pre-mRNA (primary transcript)
If DNA is tightly packed around histones in the nucleus...
This can prevent genes from being transcribed
Gene regulation in eukaryotic cells includes...
Activators that help RNA polymerase bind to the promoter
Signal transduction pathways allow...
one cell to regulate the gene expression of another cell
Which genes are responsible for your overall structure such as how many legs you have and where they develop?
An example of a gene that would be transcribed into RNA and translated into protein in both skin and nerve cells is...
These steps in gene expression are controlled in a eukaryotic cell..
Initiation of Transcription, Initiation of translation, RNA processing
An mRNA is translated once then degraded...(T/F)
A mutation that inserts a base pair into a sequence coding for a protein will...
Result in major change in the sequence of amino acids in the protein
A codon has the sequence UCU and codes for the amino acid Ser , if the codon is changed to AGU what amino acid is carried by the tRNA that binds to the new codon...
The type of mutation that alters the nucleotide sequence of a gene but does not alter the amino acid sequence of the protein produced from that gene is called ____ mutation
The ____ of the tRNA pairs with the ____ of the mRNA
The mRNA AUG CAG AGA UAA normally codes for the protein met gln arg. If a mutation occurs so that the mRNA sequence changes to AUG UAG AGA UAA the mRNA would now code for...
If a mutation occurs that changes the codon AAA to the stop codon UAA, most likely the protein would ____
A misssense mutation....
changes a single codon resulting in a single amino acid change in a protein
How does Newborn screening detect cases of PKU so the babies can be treated before their neurons are damaged?
Blood from the Newborn babies tested for increased levels of phenylalanine
What is a benign tumor?
A mass of cells that grows out of control but remains at the site of origin
The spread of cancer cells from their site of origin to sites distant in the body is called____
Only individuals with cancer have proto-oncogenes. (T/F)
A gene that encodes a protein necessary for a cell to stop at a checkpoint is an example of a ...
Tumor suppressor gene
An _____ promotes the abnormal growth of tumor cells but a normal _____ would prevent the abnormal growth of tumor cells
Oncogene, tumor suppressor
How does smoking change DNA?
Compounds in cigarette smoke interact directly with bases in DNA to change base pairing which result in errors in DNA replication
cell committing suicide in response to signals from tumor suppressors or other cells
Which of the following is an example of a targeted cancer treatment?
A drug that inhibits the protein produced by an oncogene
Why can a person who is unable to produce insulin be successfully treated with insulin derived from genetically modified bacteria?
The gene that produces insulin in humans was inserted into the bacteria where it continues to produce human insulin
Put the steps required to clone a gene into the correct order:
1. A restriction enzyme is used to cut out the gene of interest 2. a restriction enzyme is used to cut open the plasmid 3. the gene is incorporated into the plasmid 4. the recombinant plasmid is inserted into a bacterial cell 5. protein production occurs
The enzyme used to connect two fragments of DNA is...
human manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful organisms or products
Restriction enzymes are essential for genetic engineering because....
Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific locations
The smaller circular molecules of DNA commonly found in bacteria are called____
A collection of cloned DNA fragments representing the organism's entire genome is called a_____
Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme that is used to make_____
cDNA-DNA copies of mRNA
What separates the strands of DNA in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique?
Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments according to their?
What is the purpose of adding the dishwashing soap when you are isolating DNA?
it dissolves the cell and nuclear membranes releasing the DNA
If you isolated DNA from your cheek cells and your blood cells would the two DNAs have the same sequences?
Yes, the DNA in all of your cells is a replica of the DNA in the original cell formed when your father's sperm fertilized you mother's egg cell
Would you expect that cDNA made from mRNA from brain cells would be the same as cDNA made from mRNA from skin cells?
Some mRNAs would be different because brain cells and skin cells have different functions but some mRNAs would be the same because some proteins are needed in every cell for example RNA polymerase
What is the purpose of the primers in the PCR Reaction?
They determine where DNA polymerase will start synthesizing a new DNA strand
For PCR to generate a billion copies of a specific DNA sequence, you need to start with ______ double stranded DNA molecules
Will DNA barcodes work for determining the type of bacterial infection you have?
No, DNA barcodes use mitochondrial DNA so they will not work for bacteria because bacteria do not have mitochondria
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is an example of
Genetic testing of embryos before they are implanted in the mother
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