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ARTHI 136O Final
Terms in this set (28)
According to author MacDonald, which of the following definitions of desert land were NOT used in the 1877 Desert Lands Act?
-desert land is land outside the Mediterranean climate zone
-desert land receives less than 10 inches of precipitation per year
-desert land is land that shows no vegetation whatsoever
Which architectural elements and design decisions made a New England 'saltbox' house appropriate to the regional climate?
-a pergola or trellis in front of the southern facade on which deciduous vine would offer shade in the summer, but let sun shine into the house during winter times
-a two story tall, southern facade with multiple windows
-a long sloping roof stretching from the two story high southern side to a lower one story tall northern side which helps to protect from winter winds
Buckminster Fuller wanted to claim oceans as a new territory on the earth for humans to settle. What were some of the advantages according to Buckminster Fuller and as noted in the lecture?
-floating cities would not pay rent to a landlord
-floating cities could rely on desalinated water
-because floating cities can be stationary, they do not have to take the shape of a ship
Match the types of water with the correct category considering its use and possible reuse
-bath water after use is --- graywater
-water from a tap fed by a municipal water main is --- freshwater
-laundry water after use is --- graywater
-a combination of sink and toilet water would be ---- blackwater
-shower water after use is --- graywater
-toilet water after use is --- blackwater
According to author Woelfle-Erskine synergistic landscape changes that may make irrigation with municipal water superfluous should comprise of which of the following elements?
-native plant landscaping
What are some of the possible issues of using rainwater and greywater in a building as pointed out in the lecture?
-special technical infrastructure such as additional plumbing, faucets, cisterns, etc. may be required
-the use of recycled water requires the initial use of freshwater unless one has access to stored rainwater, for example
-to capture rainwater requires access to or ownership of land
The Rainwater Capture Act 2012 allows storage of up to 5000 gallons of rainwater for irrigation purposes
How do Dutch architects and engineers try to ensure that houses are (hopefully) not destroyed by water levels of rivers and the North Sea rising and falling because of a storm flood, for example?
-They design floating houses that can move up and down posts (made from steel or concrete) with rising or falling levels of water.
-They may design houses that are on firm land but close to a river with a basement that is placed into a sunken caisson. The latter will fill with water in case of a flood letting the house float up and down within the confines of the caisson
Leopold Fischer and Leberecht Migge designed in the 1920s social housing estates that today are often considered to rely on an ecologicaly more responsible architecture. As discussed in the lecture, what were some of the motivations to design and build these kinds of social housing estates at a time, the 1920s, when any concept of ecological architecture did not exist?
-to alleviate the dire economic situation of many members of the working classes in the aftermath of World War 1
-to create self-sufficient, autarkic neighborhoods where the inhabitants could grow and raise their own food stuff
-to support the inhabitants by letting them acquire legal title to land and property
Arizona architect Arthur Brown built a solar home in Tuscon, Arizona, in 1945. Which major architectural element allowed him to ensure that the solar heat gained during the day was available in the evenings and nights?
A concrete masonry wall painted black and acting as thermal mass
Which of the following building materials would you avoid if you want to achieve excellent thermal mass and good insulation?
-natural stone (rocks, etc.)
What is a Trombe Wall?
-a trombe wall combines thermal mass (the wall) with windows (solar collectors) oriented toward the sun
-heat transfer through the thermal mass of the Trombe wall into a room on the other side of that wall happens by conduction
-A trombe wall is an indirect gain passive solar system
-The space between the solar collectors and the thermal mass can be vented which can increase the flow of warm air in the room on the other side of the wall
Which of the items listed below are NOT basic physical components of a solar powered thermal system
-small windows oriented to the south
-a windmill driven generator
Which of the following statements about thermal mass are correct?
-during a hot or warm day, thermal mass absorbs heat energy and radiates the stored thermal energy back into a room during a cold or cooler night
-thermal mass helps to balance fluctuations between outside and inside temperatures
-thermal mass supports other means of heating or keeping cool the interior of a room or house
Decide whether the following statements apply to active solar systems or passive solar systems as discussed in lecture
-the location, orientation, and appearance of your building are determined by your choice of solar system---- PASSIVE
-Your solar systems's location and functioning is independent of the location, orientation, and appearance of your building --- ACTIVE
-Your lifestyle does not require adjustments or changes, other than you want to be near a power outlet or plug for your gadgets ---ACTIVE
-Your building depends on the course (daily, annually) of the sun, and so your life in and with your building is determined accordingly --- PASSIVE
In order to maximize solar heat gain inside living rooms located at a long side of a building with a rectangular floor plan, towards which direction would you orient the living spaces? (N. Hemisphere)
to the south
Which of the following elements of buildings are not discussed by R. Arsenault as having been made obsolete by the introduction of inexpensive, efficient window A/C unit during the 1950s?
Which of the inventions and events in the history of air conditioning that are listed below were introduced or invented at what time?
-world's first air-conditioning system at the Sackett-Wilhelms Lithogrpahic and Publishing Company, Brooklyn, was installed in---1902
-Crude form of mechanical cooling was invented in--1830s
-Age of the push-button "climate-conditioned" home arrived in --- early 1970s
-A room cooling system that used forced air and refrigerated coils suspended from the ceiling was designed in --- 1871
Identify all architectural elements and design strategies were, according to R. Arsenault, employed to cool interiors and buildings before the arrival of air conditioning for private homes
-steeply pitched roofs vented from top to bottom
-transoms above bedroom doors
-houses raised at least 3 ft about ground
-floor to ceiling windows
Identify the most important shortcoming of an electric fan?
it cannot alleviate oppressive humidity
Catharine Esther Beecher advised in the mid-nineteenth century to construct houses in an economical manner. Identify which of the following points would help you to follow that advice
-consider the number of rooms in order to save on expenses and labor for upkeep and maintenance
-consider the overall form or shape of your house in order to enclose the most space with the least exterior surface
Match the terms eco-effectiveness and eco-efficiency with the definition as presented in the lecture
eco-efficiency --- use and consume less natural resources, energy, avoid waste, recycle more, etc.
eco-effectiveness ---to do 100% good (rather than less bad)
Reuse occurs when old products are turned back into raw materials
As noted in the lecture, Cradle-to-Cradle distinguishes two major groups of materials/components. Identify the correct distinction from the list below
organic and synthetic materials and components
To which of the options listed below does building technology point that allows one to use waste products without additional energy-consuming industrial processing?
secondary use (i.e. reuse)
Martin Pawley establishes four principles of reuse in the building industry as the dividing line between a 'genuine development of secondary use' and other forms of design that may also include discarded objects and wast products in their work. Identify examples of these forms of design from the options listed below:
Match the following short statements with the different types of builders or designers who use waste and discarded objects in their construction work
-builders and designers in Western, industrialized countries --- too much energy-intensive waste and nothing valuable to do with it
-Counterculture bricoleurs ('odd-job man' in the words of Pawley) erecting one-off buildings relying on bricolage (odd-jobbery) as their preferred approach to constructing edifices --- not generalizable in the sense that such buildings cannot be mass produced or uniformly distributed
-Third World garbage builders---constrains caused by scarcity
-vernacular builder---making use of salvage and fragments of older buildings
What is, according to Martin Pawley, the greatest loss or drawback when recycling of old products occurs?
the energy that went into shaping the old product is lost
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