-Last book of the Nevi'im
-Broken up into twelve individual books, one for each of the prophets.
-Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.
-"When the LORD your God brings you to the land that you are about to enter and possess, and He dislodges many nations before you—the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, seven nations much larger than you—and the LORD your God delivers them to you and you defeat them, you must doom them to destruction: grant them no terms and givethem no quarter."
-Moses tells the people that when God gives them the land, they are supposed to destroy all of the nations living there.
-The list of nations they are to conquer is often considered to be a list put together after the fact, demonstrating that the bible was not the word of God written in a single instance.
-Regardless, the order is extreme - he is calling for ethnic cleansing, for genocide.
-The Israelite people fail to carry out this commandment, which possibly is a source of their downfall as they have local competitors who they fight with in the future.
-"Moses said to God, "When I come to the Israelites and say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' and they ask me, 'What is His name?' what shall I say to them?" And God said to Moses, "Ehyeh‐Asher‐Ehyeh." He continued, "Thus shall you say to the Israelites, 'Ehyeh sent me to you.'" And God said further to Moses, "Thus shall you speak to the Israelites: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you: This shall be My name forever,
This My appellation for all eternity."
-Proper name given to God
-Allows Moses to communicate with people
-Samuel grew old and appointed his sons as Judges.
-Joel and Abijah, his two oldest sons, did not follow in his ways: they worked for gain, accepted bribes and subverted justice.
-As a result the people request a king, against the word of the Lord.
-Lord says to Samuel to give them a king but warn what he will do.
-Samuel makes a lengthy speech regarding how they will lose from having a king: he will take their land, take their slaves, take men for the army and women to work in his house.
-The people said they wanted a king nonetheless.
-Saul was an excellent young man who was handsomer than any and a head taller too.
-When his father's asses went astray he and his servants went looking for them.
-When Saul is about to turn back, a servant says that there is a man of God in the town nearby who might be able to help.
-They ask girls where the seer is, and meet him immediately.
-The day before, the Lord had told Samuel he would send a man from the tribe of Benjamin and Samuel should anoint him leader.
-This was Saul. Samuel gave him food and his asses and in the next chapter he will anoint him king.
-Sets the stage for the united monarchy.
-So many coincidences lead Saul to Samuel, must be guided by the hand of God.
-Point one could make: even though the people sinned against God by wanting a King, he still is loving and gives them want they want
-He leads Saul (w/potential to be a great leader) to Samuel the prophet to become King.
-"The LORD spoke further to Ahaz: "Ask for a sign from the LORD your God, anywhere down to Sheol or up to the sky." But Ahaz replied, "I will not ask, and I will not test the LORD." "Listen, House of David," [Isaiah] retorted, "is it not enough for you to treat men as helpless that you also treat my God as helpless? Assuredly, my Lord will give you a sign of His own accord! Look, the young woman is with child and about to give birth to a son. Let her name him Immanuel. (By the time he learns to reject the bad and choose the good, people will be feeding on curds and honey.) For before the lad knows to reject the bad and choose the good, the ground whose two kings you dread shall be abandoned. "
-The Syro-Ephraimite forces are about to attack Judah, but God, through Isaiah affirms Ahaz that it will not succeed.
-Ahaz does not ask for a sign from God and instead chooses to rely on the intervention of the Assyrian King.
-God gives sign of pregnant young woman, showing that God is with Judah to protect it and punish it.
-The prophet returns to the theme of the rich who mistreat the poor and pervert justice for their own gain.
-"Ha! Those who write out evil writs
And compose iniquitous documents,
To subvert the cause of the poor,
To rob of their rights the needy of My people;
That widows may be their spoil,
And fatherless children their booty!
What will you do on the day of punishment,
When the calamity comes from afar?
To whom will you flee for help,
And how will you save your carcasses a
From collapsing under [fellow] prisoners,
From falling beneath the slain?
Yet His anger has not turned back,
And his arm is outstretched still...(1-4 here)"
-The prophet returns to the theme of the rich who mistreat the poor and pervert justice for their own gain.
-Assyria portrayed as tool God uses to punish Israel, showing how God controls everything.
-However, the assyrian king attributes his success to his own might and thus his hubris leads to their downfall.
-Assyria is about to conquer Jerusalem, but God stops them.
-passage reveals the theme of Jerusalem threatened then suddenly saved.
-"Thus said the LORD to Cyrus, His anointed one— Whose right hand He has grasped,
Treading down nations before him,
Ungirding the loins of kings,
Opening doors before him
And letting no gate stay shut:
I will march before you
And level d‐ the hills that loom up;
I will shatter doors of bronze
And cut down iron bars.
I will give you treasures concealed in the dark
and secret hoards—
So that you may know that it is I the LORD,
The God of Israel, who call you by name.
For the sake of My servant Jacob,
Israel My chosen one,
I call you by name,
I hail you by title, though you have not known Me.(1-4 here)"
-Cyrus (a Persian King) is called the anointed one, the messiah.
-God leads him through many victories to facilitate his rise to power in order to liberate Israel and spread the name of God.
-Cyrus brings exiled liberation, restoring Zion and causing more nations to worship the lord as well. Shows how the lord is the master of history, controls everything.
-The story explains history.
-"Indeed, My servant shall prosper,
Be exalted and raised to great heights.
Just as the many were appalled at him a —
So marred was his appearance, unlike that of man,
His form, beyond human semblance—
Just so he shall startle b many nations.
Kings shall be silenced because of him,
For they shall see what has not been told them,
Shall behold what they never have heard.(52 here...)"
-This passage identifies a servant who will prosper, be exalted and raised to great heights.
-This can be the entire Jewish people or a Messiah.
-This servant will suffer on behalf of the speakers, and will be maltreated yet submissive, and then killed even though he did nothing wrong, but can be resurrected.
-Christians argue that this passage predicts the coming of Jesus.
-"Cry with full throat, without restraint; Raise your voice like a ram's horn!
Declare to My people their transgression,
To the House of Jacob their sin.
To be sure, they seek Me daily,
Eager to learn My ways.
Like a nation that does what is right,
That has not abandoned the laws of its God,
They ask Me for the right way,
They are eager for the nearness of God:
"Why, when we fasted, did You not see?
When we starved our bodies, did You pay no heed?"
Because on your fast day
You see to your business
And oppress all your laborers!
Because you fast in strife and contention,
And you strike with a wicked fist!
Your fasting today is not such
As to make your voice heard on high(1-4 here)."
-This passage discusses fasting and how the Judeans may have fasted, but they were fasting for the wrong reasons-not out of devotion to God. Fasting is supposed to be about helping the weak.
-It then goes on to describe how even though the exiled people have returned to Israel, they must rebuild.
Background: MBS think it is a collection, traditionalist think it is one coherent text, ancient interpreters assumed it to be true
Thesis: The Hebrew bible can be viewed as a creation of multiple sources as seen in the documentary hypothesis. Overall, there are two themes which are the belief in a single God, and the wicked will be punished and the righteous rewarded. Though these are the two main themes, the bible is broken up into pieces that make it not coherent. In fact the bible is really just an anthology that hi lights separate ideologies, theologies, conceptions of God, reward and punishment.
1) Repetition of stories with slightly different details. The flood story has repetition which causes inconsistencies in the length of the flood, number of animals... Arises due to the difference in sources (P vs J in this case)
2) Different names for god in multiple sources: Eloheim is universal but YHWH is not
3) Inconsistencies in P and D source when looking at the laws of slaughter. D says that secular slaughter can be performed while P disagrees. Other sources cause inconsistencies too, may have been written that prophets were in different groups such as literary, non-literaerym wisdom literature (Ecclesiastes)...Creation stories contradictory at times
4) Stories like Ruth Esther and Jonah don't seem to fit very well, all focus on non-Israelites
1)Put together tells a story with beginning of Genesis and creation-> Deuteronomy and laws-> Prophets are Israelites -> Persian conquest, however this could just be due to the Redactor
2)Main ideas make it one text (Universal god... righteous rewarded...)
Thesis: The image of God is a manifold and the many names of God represent the different aspects of God.
1) Elohim-Name introduced in Genesis, Found as a general term for God, plural which is strange for a monotheistic religion
2) YHWH-The one who causes things to be, The Israelites did not start worshiping him until chapter 6, warrior God that helps the Jews through the hardship
3)El, El Shaddai, El Elyon are other names, "The God of Abraham your father"...
1) Stern and bellicose: Punishes humanity with death in response to sin, destruction of the world in the flood, death of the egyptian first borns, Lex talons (Exodus 22:24-25), God is a warrior (Exodus 15:4)
2)Accessibility: God lives in the temple, P says his body is there and D says his name is there
3) Loving and friendly: Punishes across generations as a sing of mercy
4) Charactetristics: anthropomorphic- has human characteristics, not philosophical God without a body
5) Locality: Universal covenant with Noah in Genesis 9, Prophets imaging a universal or cosmic restoration
Thesis: Multiple models of reward and punishment that normally relate to the actions of the leader.
1) Good our rewarded, bad are punished: Individual responsibility, the great flood only kills the bad people, everyone bad in Abraham and Sodom, Programmatic statement in Ezekiel 18:1-4 that people who sin shall die
2)Some instances, doesn't work this way: God continues to try to punish the Israelites for the sins of a few people, Moses stops God, Joshua 7- aksham, entire people punish for collective punishment, 2 Samuel 26: Davids census punishes entirety of people for the sin of the king, many of these examples are when the leader is good or bad
3) Diachronic punishment, dragged over generations, father figure sins and thus he is the leader and passes sin down to children, same idea in garden of eden, Exodus has deterrent of punishment to children, Deterueonmy 7 and 24
Thesis: P is a more generalized source that appears throughout the bible while D is localized mainly to Deuteronomy. The two texts differ mainly in their authorships, style, residence of God and universality of God and tanermacle rituals rituals. P was separated form the outside world because it saw the world as a bad place
Themes of P-tabernacle, sacrifices, priesthood, purity, holiness
Themes of D-Jerusalem priests, scribes, legal traditions, wisdom , north
1)Authorship-P is priestly and D is more ambiguous, focused on laws
2) Style- P likes writing with repetition (Creation story), D uses distinct vocabulary and phrases
3)Residence of God- P whole body in tabernacle, D only name in tabernacle
4) Universality of God- P says not universal because coming form the days of exile and thus there was a negative view on the world, inward focus, D says universal and God is everywhere
5) rituals- P has greater focus on the cult and states that all sacrifices must take place at the tabernacle and be pure cannot eat meat unless sacrificed her, D says the sacrifices should haoeen at a central sanctuary but secular slaughter is still allowed as long as the blood is drained, never mentions tabernacle
Ideas about God
P) transcendent view, no body, localized in tabernacle
D) God as a suzerian, only Gods name rests in the temple
Ideas about Israelites
P) Israelites are commanded to be holy: ritual concepts becomes an ehical command
D) Israelites are holy and not Cannaites
Thesis: Rabbinic Jews read the bible through the lens of midrash/inherited custom while Christians read the Bible through the lens of the belief in Christ. The Jewish interpretation is more literal vs the metaphorical interpretations in Christianity.
-Claim the Bible for Judaism by considering themselves as an extensions/continuity of the Israelites
-Ex. Even though literary prophets cease, they are replaced by rabbis as scholars and teachers of the Torah
-Ex. Even though the Israelites lose national sovereignty, this instigates the emergence of communal
-Refusal to worship other gods, forbidden foods, circumcision, all have literal interpretations
-Claim the bible for Christianity by interpreting the old testament through the new testament and Christ
-Christianity has many of the same foundations but then quickly braces off
-similar in that the belief of one God, denial of polytheism, affirmation of divine providence, and convent relationship with God
-Different in gentile population, cosmic dualism, understanding of the law
-Ex. Laws are only valid if they are confirmed by the New testament
-Puts a distance b/w self and text